Prognosis

Untreated, ADHD negatively affects a child's social and educational performance and can seriously damage his or her sense of self-esteem. ADHD children have impaired relationships with their peers, and may be looked upon as social outcasts. They may be perceived as slow learners or troublemakers in the classroom. Siblings and even parents may develop resentful feelings towards a child with ADHD.

Some ADHD children also develop a conduct disorder problem. For those adolescents who have both ADHD and a conduct disorder, up to 25% go on to develop antisocial personality disorder and the criminal behavior, substance abuse, and high rate of suicide attempts that can be symptomatic of that disorder. Children diagnosed with ADHD are also more likely to have a learning disorder, a mood disorder such as depression, or an anxiety disorder.

Approximately 7G%-8G% of ADHD patients treated with stimulant medication experience significant relief from symptoms, at least in the short term. Approximately half of ADHD children seem to "outgrow" the disorder in adolescence or early adulthood; the other half will retain some or all symptoms of ADHD as adults. With early identification and intervention, careful compliance with a treatment program, and a supportive and nurturing home and school environment, children with ADHD can flourish socially and academically.

Resources books

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 2GGG. Arnold, L. Eugene. Contemporary Diagnosis and

Management of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Newtown: Handbooks in Health Care Company, 2GGG. Boyles, Nancy S. Parenting a Child with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. New York: Contemporary Books, 1999.

Fowler, Rick, and Jerilyn Fowler. Honey, Are You Listening? Attention Deficit/ Hyperacitivity Disorder and Your Marriage. Gainsville: Fair Havens Publications, 2GG2. Goldman, Lee, J. Claude Bennett, eds. Cecil Textbook of

Medicine. 21st ed. Saint Louis: Harcourt Health Sciences Group, 2GGG.

Jones, Clare B. Sourcebook for Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. San Antonio: Communication Skill Builders/ Therapy Skill Builders, 1998. Morrison, Jaydene. Coping with ADD-ADHD: Attention-Deficit Disorder- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2GGG.

Munden, Alison. ADHD Handbook: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. Philadelphia: Taylor and Francis, Inc., 1999.

Noble, John. Textbook of Primary Care Medicine. Saint Louis: Mosby, Incorporated, 2001.

Osman, Betty B. Learning Disabilities and ADHD: A Family Guide to Living and Learning Together. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.

Tasman, Allan, Jerald Kay, MD, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, MD, eds. Psychiatry. 1st ed. W. B. Saunders Company, 1997.

organizations

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (AACAP). 3615 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20016. (202) 966-7300. <http://www.aacap.org>.

Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA). 1788 Second Street, Suite 200, Highland Park, IL 60035. Telephone: (847) 432-ADDA. <http://www.add.org>.

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder (CH.A.D.D.). 8181 Professional Place, Suite 201, Landover, MD 20785. CHADD National Call Center (800) 233-4050. Web site: <http://chadd.org>.

Paula Anne Ford-Martin, M.A.

Laith Farid Gulli, M.D. Nicole Mallory, M.S.,PA-C

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