Key Terms i

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Aversion—A strong feeling of dislike or disgust. sf. Aversion therapy makes use of this feeling to a reduce or eliminate an undesirable behavior. y Chemicals or medications used to produce unpleasant effects are called aversants.

Classical conditioning—In psychology, a process in which a previously neutral stimulus eventually produces a specific response by being paired repeatedly with another stimulus that produces that response. The best-known example of classical conditioning is Pavlov's dogs, who were conditioned to salivate when they heard a bell ring (the previously neutral stimulus) because the sound had been paired repeatedly with their feeding time.

Compliance—In medicine or psychiatry, cooperation with a treatment plan or schedule of medications.

Detoxification—A process in which the body is allowed to free itself of a drug while the symptoms of withdrawal are treated. It is the primary step in any treatment program for drug or alcohol abuse.

Emetic—A medication intended to cause vomiting. Emetics are sometimes used in aversion therapy in place of electric shock. Their most common use in mainstream medicine is in treating accidental poisoning.

Faradic—A type of discontinuous alternating electric current sometimes used in aversion therapy. It is named for Michael Faraday, an eminent British physicist.

Protocol—A plan for carrying out a scientific study or a patient's course of treatment.

Stimulus—Something that incites or moves a person to thought, emotion, or action. In mainstream psychotherapy, a stimulus can be anything from a certain picture or image to a smell, a sound, or a word or idea. In aversion therapy, the stimulus is typically a mild electric shock or a medication that produces unpleasant results.

unnecessary amounts of control and manipulation to modify behavior. They call for therapists to stop using aversive stimuli, noting that positive, non-aversive, behavioral-change strategies are available. These strategies are at least as, if not more, effective than aversive procedures.

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