Precautions

The test has been criticized on the grounds that it does not always discriminate between people with anxiety symptoms and those with depressive symptoms (people with depression also score fairly high on the HAS). Because the HAS is an interviewer-administered and rated measure, there is some subjectivity when it comes to interpretation and scoring. Interviewer bias can impact the results. For this reason, some people prefer self-report measures where scores are completely based on the...

Key Terms

Bipolar disorder A mental disorder characterized by dramatic, and sometimes rapid mood swings, resulting in both manic and depressive episodes formerly called manic-depressive disorder. Folic acid An essential B-vitamin that humans obtain through diet. Manic Referring to mania, a state characterized by excessive activity, excitement or emotion. Milligram (mg) One-thousandth of a gram. A gram is the metric measure that equals approximately 0.035 ounces. proic acid and its close relative,...

Amantadine

Amantadine is a synthetic antiviral agent that also has strong antiparkinsonian properties. It is sold in the United States under the brand name Symmetrel, and is also available under its generic name. Amantadine is used to treat a group of side effects (called parkinsonian side effects) that include tremors, difficulty walking, and slack muscle tone. These side effects may occur in patients who are taking antipsychotic medications used to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia. An...

Abnormal results

Some clinicians have reported that patients undergoing aversive treatment utilizing electric shocks have experienced increased anxiety and anxiety-related symptoms that may interfere with the conditioning process as well as lead to decreased acceptance of the treatment. As indicated above, a few clinicians have reported a worrisome increase in hostility among patients receiving aversion therapy, especially those undergoing treatment using chemical aversants. Although aversion therapy has some...

Normal results

Cognitive retraining may be considered successful if performance on a behavior related to a particular cognitive skill has improved. It is ultimately successful if it helps the injured person improve his or her functioning and meet his or her needs in real-life situations and settings. See also Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Dementia Learning disabilities Schizophrenia Mateer, Catherine A., and Sarah Raskin. Cognitive Rehabilitation. In Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child with...

Prevention

Given the pervasive influence of the mass media in contemporary Western societies, the best preventive strategy involves challenging those afflicted with the disorder and who consequently have unrealistic images of attractive people. Parents, teachers, primary health care professionals, and other adults who work with young people can point out and discuss the pitfalls of trying to look perfect. In addition, parents or other adults can educate themselves about BDD and its symptoms, and pay...

Description

Clonazepam belongs to a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are sedative-hypnotic drugs that help to relieve nervousness, tension, anxiety symptoms, and seizures by slowing the central nervous system. To do this, they block the effects of a specific chemical involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, decreasing the excitement level of the nerve cells. When clonazepam is used to treat panic disorder, it is more sedating than alprazolam, another benzodiazepine...

Disorder of written expression

Disorder of written expression, formerly called developmental expressive writing disorder, is a learning disability in which a person's ability to communicate in writing is substantially below the level normally expected based on the individual's age, intelligence, life experiences, educational background, or physical impairments. This disability affects both the physical reproduction of letters and words and the organization of thoughts and ideas in written compositions. Disorder of written...

Cyclothymic disorder

Cyclothymic disorder, also known as cyclothymia, is a relatively mild form of bipolar II disorder characterized by mood swings that may appear to be almost within the normal range of emotions. These mood swings range from mild depression, or dysthymia, to mania of low intensity, or hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder, a symptomatically mild form of bipolar II disorder, involves mood swings ranging from mild depression to mild mania. It is possible for cyclothymia to go undiagnosed, and for...

Results

Scoring for the CASE is relatively simple. Scores are calculated for each scale and then compared to age-appropriate scores to determine the presence or severity of symptoms. For example, if a person scores high on the Depression scale, this information could be used as part of an overall diagnosis for a DSM-IV depressive disorder. A person scoring high in Psychoticism may have a psychotic disorder. For any specific DSM-IV diagnosis to be made, however, all of the required criteria for that...

Demographics

The demographic distribution of dementia varies somewhat according to its cause. Moreover, recent research indicates that dementia in many patients has overlapping causes, so that it is not always easy to assess the true rates of occurrence of the different types. For example, AD and MID are found together in about 15 -20 of cases. AD is by far the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, accounting for 60 -80 of cases. It is estimated that four million adults in the United States suffer...

Fetishism

Fetishism is a form of paraphilia, a disorder that is characterized by recurrent intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies generally involving non-human objects, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner (not merely simulated), or children or other non- consenting persons. The essential feature of fetishism is recurrent intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involving specific objects. While any object may become a fetish, the distinguishing feature is...

Homeless service agencies

Homeless With Mental Illness

Services for homeless people can be divided into those providing medical care, those providing housing, and those providing other basic needs. Publicly funded agencies provide the majority of medical care, especially primary and mental health care. Public and private organizations share the responsibilities of providing shelter and housing services, through both large federal programs and smaller need and faith-based programs. Some studies find that between one-third and one-half of homeless...

Definition

Exposure treatment is a technique that is widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Exposure treatment is used for a variety of anxiety disorders, and it has also recently been extended to the treatment of substance-related disorders. Generally speaking, exposure treatment involves presenting a patient with anxiety-producing material for a long enough time to decrease the intensity of their emotional reaction. As a result, the feared situation or thing no longer makes the patient...

Treatment

The first step in the treatment of ED includes the elimination or alteration of modifiable risk factors or causes, such as lifestyle or psychosocial factors including smoking, obesity, substance and alcohol abuse, and the alteration of prescription and over-the-counter medications if necessary. Recommended treatment options for ED include the following medications Oral erectogenic medications PDE-5 inhibitors. Sildenafil (Viagra) is an example. It works by blocking PDE-5 thereby allowing cGMP...

Causes and symptoms

Studies of adopted children indicate that both genetic and environmental factors influence the development of APD. Both biological and adopted children of people diagnosed with the disorder have an increased risk of developing it. Children born to parents diagnosed with APD but adopted into other families resemble their biological more than their adoptive parents. The environment of the adoptive home, however, may lower the child's risk of developing APD. Researchers have linked antisocial...

Desipramine

Desipramine is an antidepressant drug used to elevate mood and promote recovery of a normal range of emotions in patients with depressive disorders. In addition, desipramine has uses in a number of other psychiatric and medical conditions. In the United States, the drug is also known by its brand name, Norpramin. Desipramine is known principally as an antidepressant drug used to promote recovery of depressed patients. It also has therapeutic uses in panic disorder, pain management,...

Medical crisis counseling

Medical crisis counseling is a brief intervention used to address psychological (anxiety, fear and depression) and social (family conflicts) problems related to chronic illness in the health care setting. It uses coping techniques and building social support to help patients manage the stress of being newly diagnosed with a chronic illness or suffering a worsening medical condition. It aims to help patients understand their reactions as normal responses to a stressful circumstance and to help...

Recommended dosages

Dosages of Korean ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine are given as 2-8 g as a tonic and 15-20 g for acute conditions. Researchers who studied the potenial effectiveness of ginseng as a treatment for diabetes found that 1-3 g of American ginseng taken 40 minutes before a meal was effective in reducing blood sugar levels. Because dried ginseng root is hard and brittle, it must be simmered for about 45 minutes to extract the ginsenosides. Two to three teaspoonsful of dried root are used...

Prognosis

Autistic disorders follow a continuous course throughout life. Autistic individuals with higher levels of intelligence may become able to work and live independently or, more frequently, semi-independently. This is especially true for those with IQ scores of 70 or higher. One in six children with autism becomes a well-adjusted adult. Another one out of six achieves a fair degree of adjustment in adult life. Others may never be able to leave the structured environment of home or, later, special...

Clozapine

Clozapine is an antipsychotic drug used to alleviate the symptoms and signs of schizophrenia a form of severe mental illness which is characterized by loss of contact with reality, hallucinations, delusions, and unusual behavior. In the United States, the drug is also known by the brand name Clozaril. Clozapine is principally used to reduce the signs and symptoms of severe schizophrenic illness. The drug is intended for use in patients with severe schizophrenia who have not responded to any...

Please Readimportant Information

The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders is a medical reference product designed to inform and educate readers about a wide variety of mental disorders, diagnostic techniques and tests, therapies, and psychiatric medications. The Gale Group believes the product to be comprehensive, but not necessarily definitive. It is intended to supplement, not replace, consultation with a physician or other health care practitioner. While the Gale Group has made substantial efforts to provide information...

Purpose

Creative therapy includes techniques that can be used for self-expression and personal growth when the client is unable to participate in traditional talk therapy, or when that approach has become ineffective. Appropriate clients include children, individuals who are unable to speak due to stroke or dementia, or people who are dealing with clinical issues that are hidden with in the subconscious, beyond the reach of language. The latter often occurs when the focus is on trauma or abuse that may...

Alprazolam

It belongs to a group of drugs called benzodiazepines. In the United States alprazolam is sold under brand name Xanax. The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved alprazolam to treat anxiety, panic disorder, and anxiety associated with depression. Occasionally alprazolam is used to treat alcohol withdrawal, but it is not FDA-approved for this use, and is not normally the first drug tried in treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Alprazolam is...

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is a reference work consulted by psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians in clinical practice, social workers, medical and nursing students, pastoral counselors, and other professionals in health care and social service fields. The book's title is often shortened to DSM, or an abbreviation that also indicates edition, such as DSM-IV-TR, which indicates fourth edition, text revision of the manual, published in 2000. The DSM-IV-TR...

Disulfiram

Disulfiram is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor. It prohibits the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme found in the liver. In the United States, disulfiram is sold under brand name Antabuse. Disulfiram is used as a conditioning treatment for alcohol dependence. When taken with alcohol, disulfiram causes many unwanted and unpleasant effects, and the fear of these is meant to condition the patient to avoid alcohol. Two Danish physicians who were investigating disulfiram for its...

Side effects

Drowsiness and sleepiness are common and expected effects of lorazepam. Patients should not drive, operate machinery, or perform hazardous activities that require mental alertness until they have a sense of how lorazepam will affect their alertness. Patients over age 50 may experience deeper and longer sedation after taking lorazepam. These effects may subside with continued use or dosage reduction. The effects of an injection may impair performance and driving ability for 24-48 hours. The...

Key Terms h

Affect The expression of emotion displayed to n others through facial expressions, hand gestures, s tone of voice, etc. Types of affect include flat d (inanimate, no expression), blunted (minimally r responsive), inappropriate (incongruous expressions of emotion relative to the content of a conversation), and labile (sudden and abrupt changes in type and intensity of emotion). Cortisol A steroid hormone released by the cortex (outer portion) of the adrenal gland when a person is under stress....

Chlordiazepoxide

Chlordiazepoxide is used for the treatment of anxiety. It is a member of the benzodiazepine family of compounds, which slow the central nervous system in order to ease tension or nervousness. In the United States, it is sold under the trade name of Librium. Chlordiazepoxide is used for the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety and management of anxiety disorders. It is also used for treating symptoms of withdrawal from acute alcoholism and alcoholic intoxication. Chlordiazepoxide is useful...

Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a neurological diagnostic procedure that records the changes in electrical potentials (brain waves) in various parts of the brain. The EEG is an important aid in the diagnosis and management of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, as well as in the diagnosis of brain damage related to trauma and diseases such as strokes, tumors, encephalitis, and drug and alcohol intoxication. The EEG is also useful in monitoring brain wave activity and in the determination of...

Types of dissociative disorders

Dissociative amnesia is a disorder in which the distinctive feature is the patient's inability to remember important personal information to a degree that cannot be explained by normal forgetfulness. In many cases, it is a reaction to a traumatic accident or witnessing a violent crime. Patients with dissociative amnesia may develop depersonalization or trance states as part of the disorder, but they do not experience a change in identity. Dissociative fugue is a disorder in which a person...

Treatments

Autistic disorders cannot be cured, but children who have these disorders can make considerable progress in all areas of life. Depending upon the level of intellectual function, it is possible for some children with autism to become functioning, semi-independent adults capable of working and enjoy some social relationships. Parenting a child with autism can be extremely challenging, however, and many families find support groups to be helpful. Both medication and psychosocial therapies...

Estazolam

Estazolam is a sedative-hypnotic drug belonging to the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines. It is sold in the United States under the names ProSom and Sedarest. Estazolam is used as a short-term treatment for insomnia. Given at bedtime, estazolam can help patients who have trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, or who have unwanted early morning awakening. Estazolam belongs to a group of drugs called benzo-diazepines. Benzodiazepines are sedative-hypnotic drugs that help to relieve...

Community mental health

Community mental health is a decentralized pattern of mental health, mental health care, or other services for people with mental illnesses. Community-based care is designed to supplement and decrease the need for more costly inpatient mental health care delivered in hospitals. Community mental health care may be more accessible and responsive to local needs because it is based in a variety of community settings rather than aggregating and isolating patients and patient care in central...

Recommended dosage

The dosage of lamotrigine varies depending upon the age and weight of the patient, other medications that the patient is taking, and whether the patient has heart, liver, or kidney disease. It is common for patients to start with a low dosage of lamotrigine. The dosage is then increased slowly over several weeks to help prevent side effects. The dosage may be adjusted frequently by the prescribing physician. A common dose for an adult who takes no other medications and has no other diseases is...

Fatigue

Fatigue may be defined as a subjective state in which one feels tired or exhausted, and in which the capacity for normal work or activity is reduced. There is, however, no commonly accepted definition of fatigue when it is considered in the context of health and illness. This lack of definition results from the fact that a person's experience of fatigue depends on a variety of factors. These factors include culture personality the physical environment (light, noise, vibration) availability of...

Crisis housing

Crisis housing (or crisis residential services) are supervised short-term residential alternatives to hospitalization for adults with serious mental illnesses or children with serious emotional or behavioral disturbances. The course of most serious mental illness (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and borderline personality disorder) is cyclical, typically characterized by periods of relative well-being, interrupted by periods of deterioration or relapse. When relapse...

Diagnosis

The manual used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental illnesses, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as the DSM-IV-TR, includes specific diagnostic criteria for four types of anti-anxiety medication abuse. These are Dependence, the more severe form of addiction, refers to very significant levels of physiological dependence, with both tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Abuse, the less severe form of addiction, may still result in risky behavior, such...

Difficulties in estimating numbers of people who experience homelessness

Methods for estimating the size of the homeless population are evolving and sometimes contested, and are complicated by varying definitions of homelessness. The U.S. Census, while attempting to identify the number of people who are homeless and who use particular types of homeless services, has complex and service-based definitions of homelessness. It also has recognized its limited abilities to define and enumerate the homeless (it is after all a national household survey). In 2000, the Census...

Enuresis

Enuresis, more commonly called bed-wetting, is a disorder of elimination that involves the voluntary or involuntary release of urine into bedding, clothing, or other inappropriate places. In adults, loss of bladder control is often referred to as urinary incontinence rather than enuresis it is frequently found in patients with late-stage Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia. Enuresis is a condition that has been described since 1500 b.c. People with enuresis wet their bed or release...

B Ginseng

Ginseng is an herbal preparation derived from the aromatic root of a plant of the genus Panax, which is native to East Asia. Ginseng belongs to the Araliaceae family of plants. Siberian ginseng belongs to a different genus, Eleutherococcus senticosus. The English name of the plant is a modification of its Chinese name, ren shen, which means man and herb. The Chinese name comes from the ginseng root's resemblance to the shape of the human body, whence the plant's traditional use as a tonic for...

Clinical Assessment Scales for the Elderly

The Clinical Assessment Scales for the Elderly, often abbreviated as CASE, is a diagnostic tool used to determine the presence of mental disorders and other conditions in elderly adults. The CASE is used to determine the presence of mental disorders in an elderly person as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (2000), which is also called DSM-IV-TR. The DSM-IV-TR is the basic reference work consulted by mental health professionals...

Acute stress disorder

Acute stress disorder (ASD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by a cluster of dissociative and anxiety symptoms that occur within a month of a traumatic stressor. It is a relatively new diagnostic category and was added to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) in 1994 to distinguish time-limited reactions to trauma from the farther-reaching and longer-lasting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Published by the American Psychiatric...

Historical background

Over the past 50 years, there have been fundamental changes in the system of mental health care in America. In the 1950s, mental health care for persons with severe and persistent mental illnesses (like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and schizoaffective disorder) was provided almost exclusively by large public mental hospitals. Created as part of a reform movement, these state hospitals provided a wide range of basic life supports in addition to mental health treatment,...

Viewpoints

There is a theory that the practice of acquiring informed consent is rooted in the post-World War II Nuremberg Trials. Following the war crimes tribunal in 1949, as a result of the Kaarl Brandt case, 10 standards were put forth regarding physician's requirements for experimentation on human subjects. This established a new standard of ethical medical behavior for the post-WW II human rights age, and the concept of voluntary informed consent was established. A number of rules accompanied...

Family education

Family education is the ongoing process of educating family members about a serious mental illness in order to improve their coping skills and their ability to help a relative affected by the illness. When someone is diagnosed with a chronic illness, such as diabetes or heart disease, efforts are typically made by his her doctor not only to educate the individual directly affected by the illness, but to educate and involve his her family in treatment and care. Historically, this has not been...

Interactions

Patients should always tell all doctors and dentists that they are taking this medication. It may decrease the effectiveness of some drugs used to treat high blood pressure and should not be taken with other antidepressants, epinephrine and other adrenaline-type drugs, or methylphenidate. Patients should not take over-the-counter medications without checking with their doctor. For instance, amitriptyline should not be taken with Tagamet (cimetidine) or Neosynephrine. Patients taking this drug...

Compulsion

A compulsion is a repetitive, excessive, meaningless activity or mental exercise that a person performs in an attempt to avoid distress or worry. Compulsions are not voluntary activities and are not performed for pleasure. Instead, a person with a compulsion feels the need to engage in a particular behavior to relieve the stress and discomfort which would become overwhelming if the activity were not performed in a specific, repeated manner. Examples of compulsive motor activities are washing...

Binge eating

Binge eating is a form of overeating in which a person ingests a large amount of food during a discrete period of time (within one or two hours, for example) and experiences feelings of being out of control and unable to stop eating during the episode. In practice, the duration of a binge may vary greatly from one event to the next, making it difficult to define the number of binges occurring in a given day. Binge eating often occurs in the absence of hunger and is characterized by eating very...

Alcohol and related disorders

Alcoholism is defined as alcohol seeking and consumption behavior that is harmful. Long-term and uncontrollable harmful consumption can cause alcohol-related disorders that include antisocial personality disorder, mood disorders (bipolar and major depression) and anxiety disorders. Alcoholism is the popular term for the disorder recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as alcohol dependence. The hallmarks of this disorder are addiction to alcohol, inability to stop drinking, and...

Alzheimers disease

Alzheimer's disease, or AD, is a progressive, incurable disease of the brain caused by the degeneration and eventual death of neurons (nerve cells) in several areas of the brain. Patients with AD first lose such mental functions as short-term memory and the ability to learn new things. In the later stages of AD they gradually lose control over their sense of orientation, their emotions, and other aspects of behavior. End-stage AD is characterized by loss of control of body functions, an...

Computed tomography

Computed tomography scanning, also called CT scan, CAT scan, or computerized axial tomography, is a diagnostic tool that provides views of internal body structures using x rays. In the field of mental health, a CT scan may be used when a patient seeks medical help for symptoms that could possibly be caused by a brain tumor. These symptoms may include headaches, emotional abnormalities, or intellectual or memory problems. In these cases, a CT scan may be performed to rule out a tumor, so that...

Bipolar disorders

Bipolar disorders is the name given to a group of mental disorders characterized by extreme fluctuations in i- Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified 5 Disorder of mood involving mood swings that do not meet criteria for other disorders specified above. Bipolar disorders Disorders characterized by wide fluctuations in mood. Bipolar I disorder A major mood disorder characterized by full-blown manic episodes, often interspersed with episodes of major depression. Bipolar II disorder Disorder...

Cognitive retraining

Cognitive retraining is a therapeutic strategy that seeks to improve or restore a person's skills in the areas of paying attention, remembering, organizing, reasoning and understanding, problem-solving, decision making, and higher level cognitive abilities. These skills are all interrelated. Cognitive retraining is one aspect of cognitive rehabilitation, a comprehensive approach to restoring such skills after brain injury or other disability. The purpose of cognitive retraining is the reduction...

Studying the brain

Neurons carry information through the nervous system in the form of brief electrical impulses called action potentials. When an impulse reaches the end of an axon, neurotransmitters are released at junctions called synapses. The neurotransmitters are chemicals that bind to receptors on the receiving neurons, triggering the continuation of the impulse. Fifty different neurotransmitters have been discovered since the first was identified in 1920. By studying the chemical effects of...

Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine is an antidepressant of the type known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). It is sold in the United States under the brand names Prozac and Sarafem. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression, premenstrual syndrome, bulimia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter a brain chemical that carries nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. Researchers think that depression and certain other mental disorders may be caused, in part, because there...

Preparation

Before people subject themselves to hypnotherapy they are advised to learn as much about the process and about the chosen therapist as is necessary to feel comfortable. Rapport and trust are two key ingredients in making a potential hypnotherapy patient comfortable. Therapists should be open and willing to answer all questions regarding qualifications, expertise, and methods used. A well-qualified professional will not undertake the use of hypnosis without interviewing the patient to ascertain...

Alternative nosologies

A number of different nosologies or schemes of classification have been proposed to replace the current descriptive model of mental disorders. Three of them will be briefly described. Dimensional alternatives to DSM-IV would replace the categorical classification now in use with a recognition that mental disorders lie on a continuum with mildly disturbed and normal behavior, rather than being qualitatively distinct. For example, the personality disorders of Axis II are increasingly regarded as...

Risks

As was previously mentioned, mainstream light therapies may produce minor side effects (headache, insomnia, mild sunburn or skin irritation, dry eyes) in some patients. In addition, some patients receiving phototherapy for SAD may experience hypomania, which is a feeling of euphoria or an exaggeratedly upbeat mood. As with the physical side effects, hypomania can usually be managed by adjusting the frequency or length of light therapy sessions. There are no known risks associated with...

Circadian rhythm sleep disorder

Circadian rhythm sleep disorder is a persistent or recurring pattern of sleep disruption resulting either from an altered sleep-wake schedule or an inequality between a person's natural sleep-wake cycle and the sleep-related demands placed on him or her. The term circadian rhythm refers to a person's internal sleep and wake-related rhythms that occur throughout a 24-hour period. The sleep disruption leads to insomnia or excessive sleepiness during the day, resulting in impaired functioning. The...

Major sources of chronic fatigue

There are many diseases and disorders in which fatigue is a major symptom for example, cancer, cardiovascular disease, emphysema, multiple sclerosis, rheumatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV AIDS, infectious mononucleosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. The reasons for the fatigue, however, vary according to the organ system or body function affected by the disease. Physical reasons for fatigue include Circulatory and respiratory impairment. When the patient's...

C Prognosis

G Amnestic disorders caused by alcoholism do not gen- erally improve significantly over time, although in a small number of cases the patient s condition improves completely. In many cases the symptoms are severe, and in some cases warrant long-term care for the patient to make sure his or her daily needs are met. Other substance-induced amnestic disorders have a variable rate of recovery, although in many cases full recovery does eventually occur. Transient global amnesia usually resolves...

Female orgasmic disorder

Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is the persistent or m recurrent inability of a woman to have an orgasm (climax or sexual release) after adequate sexual arousal and sex- i ual stimulation. According to the handbook used by men- o tal health professionals to diagnose mental disorders, the e Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (also known as the DSM-IV-TR), this lack of response can be primary (a woman has never had an orgasm) or secondary (acquired...

XDescription

Depending on the version used, there are either 17 or 21 items for which an interviewer provides ratings. Besides the interview with the depressed patient, other information can be utilized in formulating ratings, such as information gathered from family, friends, and patient records. Hamilton stressed that the interview process be easygoing and informal and that there are no specific questions that must be asked. The 17-item version of the HDS is more commonly used than the 21-item version,...

Incidence of homelessness and associated diseases and conditions

Homeless adults are poor and have high rates of unmet need for health care. This is in part because poverty is associated with higher risk and rates of illness, particularly mental illnesses including substance abuse. Homeless people experience disproportionate rates and symptoms of mental health disorders, including substance abuse disorders and dual diagnoses. For these reasons, large portions of federally funded homeless services are medical services, and homeless people are often viewed...

Energy therapies

Energy therapies is a collective term used to refer to a variety of alternative and complementary treatments based on the use, modification, or manipulation of energy fields. Most energy therapies presuppose or accept the theory that matter and energy are not exclusive opposites, but that matter is simply a denser form of energy that is more easily perceived by the senses. Some energy therapies are associated with systems of traditional Indian or Chinese medicine that are thousands of years old...

A Key Terms

Low affect Severe lack of interest and emotions O Somatic concern Excessive concern about the E body, particularly in relation to illness. Hamilton rating scale for depression, or the Zung self-rating depression scale. While it is not found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) produced by the American Psychiatric Association, the GDS is widely recommended for clinical use and is included as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. It is also...

Dysthymic disorder

Dysthymic disorder is defined as a mood disorder with chronic (long-term) depressive symptoms that are present most of the day, more days than not, for a period of at least two years. Everyone experiences feelings of unhappiness and sadness occasionally. When these depressed feelings start to dominate everyday life and cause physical and mental deterioration, the feelings become known as depressive disorders. Depressive disorders can be categorized as major depressive disorder or dysthymic...

Models of case management

The two models of case management mentioned most often in the mental health literature are assertive community treatment (ACT) and intensive case management. A third model, clinical case management, refers to a program where the case manager assigned to a client also functions as their primary therapist. The ACT model originated in an inpatient research unit at Mendota State Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin in the late 1960s. The program's architects, Arnold Marx, M.D., Leonard Stein, M.D. and...

S Interactions

Dangerously high blood pressure has resulted from the combination of tricyclic antidepressants, such as amoxap-ine, and members of another class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Because of this, amoxapine should never be taken in combination with MAO inhibitors. Patient taking any MAO inhibitors, for example Nardil (phenelzine sulfate) or Parmate (tranylcypromine sulfate), should stop the MAO inhibitor then wait at least 14 days before starting amoxapine or any...

Hallucinations

A hallucination is a false perception occurring without any identifiable external stimulus and indicates an abnormality in perception. The false perceptions can occur in any of the five sensory modalities. Therefore, a hallucination essentially is seeing, hearing, tasting, feeling, or smelling something that is not there. The false perceptions are not accounted for by the person's religious or cultural background, and the person experiencing hallucinations may or may not have insight into them....

Amitriptyline

Amitriptyline is a medication used to treat various forms of depression, pain associated with the nerves (neuropathic pain), and to prevent migraine headaches. It is sold in the United States under the brand names Elavil and Endep. Amitriptyline helps relieve depression and pain. This medication, usually given at bedtime, also helps patients sleep better. This medication is one of several tricyclic antide-pressants, so-called because of the three-ring chemical structure common to these drugs....

Examples of denial

Death is a common occasion for denial. When someone learns of the sudden, unexpected death of a loved one, at first he or she may not be able to accept the reality of this loss. The initial denial protects that person from the emotional shock and intense grief that often accompanies news of death. Chronic or terminal illnesses also encourage denial. People with such illnesses may think, It's not so bad I'll get over it, and refuse to make any lifestyle changes. Denial can also apply to internal...

Geriatric Depression Scale

The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment designed specifically to identify depression in the elderly. The items may be answered yes or no, which is thought to be simpler than scales that use a five-category response set. It is generally recommended as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. One point is assigned to each answer and corresponds to a scoring grid. A score of 10 or 11 or lower is the usual threshold to separate depressed from...

Umolioogmim

Colored positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans of a permission.) See color insert for color version of photo. he or she begins to experience depressed, elevated, or irritable mood with apathy (lack of empathy for others, and lack of showing a broad range of appropriate emotions). cocaine-induced anxiety disorder. The person suffering from this disorder has experienced intoxication or withdrawal from cocaine within a month from the time he or she begins to experience anxiety, panic...

Caffeinerelated disorders

Caffeine is a white, bitter crystalline alkaloid derived from coffee or tea. It belongs to a class of compounds called xanthines, its chemical formula being 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. Caffeine is classified together with cocaine and amphetamines as an analeptic, or central nervous system stimulant. Coffee is the most abundant source of caffeine, although caffeine is also found in tea, cocoa, and cola beverages as well as in over-the-counter and prescription medications for pain relief. In the...

Depression and depressive disorders

Depression or depressive disorders (unipolar depression) are mental illnesses characterized by a profound and persistent feeling of sadness or despair and or a loss of interest in things that were once pleasurable. Disturbance in sleep, appetite, and mental processes are a common accompaniment. Everyone experiences feelings of unhappiness and sadness occasionally. But when these depressed feelings start to dominate everyday life and cause physical and mental deterioration, they become what are...

Cognitive remediation

Cognitive remediation is a teaching process that targets areas of neuropsychological functioning involved in learning and basic day-to-day functioning. The goals of cognitive remediation are to bolster specific cognitive capacities that are weak and also to teach compensatory strategies. Cognitive remediation is used primarily with two groups of people those who have suffered from a traumatic brain injury (a stroke, tumor, or a head injury) and those who have learning disabilities. For people...

Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a medical procedure in which a small, carefully controlled amount of electric current is passed through the brain to treat symptoms associated with certain mental disorders. The electric current produces a convulsion for the relief of symptoms associated with such mental illnesses as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, acute psychosis, and catatonia. Also known as electroconvulsive shock therapy or electroshock therapy, ECT is used together with...

Adjustment disorder

An adjustment disorder is a type of mental disorder resulting from maladaptive, or unhealthy, responses to stressful or psychologically distressing life events. This low level of adaptation then leads to the development of emotional or behavioral symptoms. Often, a person experiences a stressful event as one that changes his or her world in some fundamental way. An adjustment disorder represents significant difficulty in adjusting to the new reality. The stressful events that precipitate an...

Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED) may be defined as the consistent inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse. The word consistent is included in the definition because most men experience transient episodes of ED that are temporary and usually associated with fatigue, anger, depression or other stressful emotions. The use of the formerly used term impotence has been virtually abandoned because of its inherent stigma of weakness and lack of power....

Behavior modification

Behavior modification is a treatment approach, based on the principles of operant conditioning, that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones through positive or negative reinforcement. Behavior modification is used to treat a variety of problems in both adults and children. Behavior modification has been successfully used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactiv-ity disorder (ADHD), phobias, enuresis (bed-wetting), generalized anxiety disorder,...

Addiction

Most definitions refer to addiction as the compulsive need to use a habit-forming substance, or an irresistible urge to engage in a behavior. Two other important defining features of addiction are tolerance, the increasing need for more of the substance to obtain the same effect, and withdrawal, the unpleasant symptoms that arise when an addict is prevented from using the chosen substance. The term addiction has come to refer to a wide and complex range of behaviors. While addiction most...

Bulimia nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and engaging in inappropriate ways of counteracting the bingeing (using laxatives, for example) in order to prevent weight gain. The word bulimia is the Latin form of the Greek word boulimia, which means extreme hunger. A binge is consuming a larger amount of food within a limited period of time than most people would eat in similar circumstances. Most people with bulimia report feelings of loss of control associated with...

Conduct disorder

Conduct Disorder Symptoms

Conduct disorder is a childhood behavior disorder characterized by aggressive and destructive activities that cause disruptions in the child's natural environments such as home, school, church, or the neighborhood. The overriding feature of conduct disorder is the repetitive o and persistent pattern of behaviors that violate societal nd norms and the rights of other people. It is one of the most c prevalent categories of mental health problems of chil- d dren in the United States, with rates...

Dissociation and dissociative disorders

The dissociative disorders are a group of mental disorders that affect consciousness and are defined as causing significant interference with the patient's general functioning, including social relationships and employment. Dissociation is a mechanism that allows the mind to separate or compartmentalize certain memories or thoughts from normal consciousness. These split-off mental contents are not erased. They may resurface spontaneously or be triggered by objects or events in the person's...

Dyspareunia

Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse. The same term is used whether the pain results from a medical or a psychosocial problem. Dyspareunia may be diagnosed in men and women, although the diagnosis is rare in men when it does occur in men, it is almost always caused by a medical problem. This discussion focuses only on pain with intercourse caused by psychosocial problems therefore, only women's experiences are emphasized in this entry. The professional's handbook, the Diagnostic and...

Hallucinogens and related disorders

Hallucinogens are a chemically diverse group of drugs that cause changes in a person's thought processes, perceptions of the physical world, and sense of time passing. Hallucinogens can be found naturally in some plants, and can be synthesized in the laboratory. Most hallucinogens are abused as recreational drugs. Hallucinogens are also called psychedelic drugs. Hallucinogens are as old as civilization. Many cultures recorded eating certain plants specifically to induce visions or alter the...

Fluvoxamine

Fluvoxamine is an antidepressant of the type known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). It is marketed in the United States under the brand name Luvox. Fluvoxamine is used to treat depression. It is also the xa first SSRI to be approved by the United States Food and 3 Drug Administration (FDA) for use in obsessive-com- e pulsive disorder in children, adolescents, and adults. Serotonin is a brain chemical that carries nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. Researchers think...

Abuse

Abuse is a complex psychosocial problem that affects large numbers of adults as well as children throughout the world. It is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) under the heading of Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention. Although abuse was first defined with regard to children when it first received sustained attention in the 1950s, clinicians and researchers now recognize that adults can suffer abuse in a number of different...

Aftercare

After the patient has completed detoxification, he or she needs further treatment either at an outpatient, inpatient, residential, or day hospital program in order to remain drug-free for the long term. Patients are treated by trained health care professionals, and some patients are also counseled by people who are recovering from addiction themselves. Many patients also benefit from 12-step programs or self-help groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) or Narcotics Anonymous (NA). Most opioid...

Detoxification

Detoxification is a process in which the body is allowed to free itself of a drug. During this period, the symptoms of withdrawal are also treated. Detoxification is the primary step in any drug treatment program, and is used as the initial phase in treating alcohol, heroin, inhalant, sedative, and hypnotic addictions. The goal of detoxification is to clear the toxins out of the body so that the body can adjust and heal itself after being dependent on a substance. In order for the recovering...

Medications for weight loss

Prescription medications currently prescribed for weight loss include Generic name Diethylpropion (Trade names Tenuate, Tenuate dospan) Generic name Mazindole (Trade name Sanorex) Generic name Orlistat (Trade name Xenical) Generic name Phendimetrazine (Trade names Bontril, Plegine, Prelu-2, X-Troxine) Generic name Phentermine (Trade name Adipex-P, Fastin, Ionamin, Oby-trim) Generic name Sibutramine (Trade name Meridia) Some antidepressant medications have been studied for use as possible...

Donepezil

Donepezil is a drug used to treat dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. In the United States, donepezil is sold under the brand name Aricept. Donepezil is used to help treat symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in individuals with mild to moderate illness. The drug may cause small improvements in dementia for a short period of time, but donepezil does not stop the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The Food and Drug Administration has approved donepezil for treatment of the symptoms of...

Bender Gestalt Test

The Bender Gestalt Test, or the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, is a psychological assessment instrument used to evaluate visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills in both children and adults. Scores on the test are used to identify possible organic brain damage and the degree maturation of the nervous system. The Bender Gestalt was developed by psychiatrist Lauretta Bender in the late nineteenth century. The Bender Gestalt Test is used to evaluate visual maturity, visual motor...

Affect

Affect is a psychological term for an observable expression of emotion. A person's affect is the expression of emotion or feelings displayed to others through facial expressions, hand gestures, voice tone, and other emotional signs such as laughter or tears. Individual affect fluctuates according to emotional state. What is considered a normal range of affect, called the broad affect, varies from culture to culture, and even within a culture. Certain individuals may gesture prolifically while...

History and mission

The development of group homes occurred in response to the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1960s and 1970s. As psychiatric hospitals closed, discharged individuals needed places to live. Group homes were designed to provide care in the least restrictive environment and to integrate individuals with disabilities into the community, reducing stigma and improving quality of life. The environment of a group home was intended to simulate typical family life as much as possible. Since the...

Body dysmorphic disorder

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined by the DSM-IV-TR (a handbook for mental health professionals) as a condition marked by excessive preoccupation with an imaginary or minor defect in a facial feature or localized part of the body. The diagnostic criteria specify that the condition must be sufficiently severe to cause a decline in the patient's social, occupational, or educational functioning. The most common cause of this decline is the time lost in obsessing about the defect. The...

Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy is a complex psychological system that stresses the development of client self-awareness and personal responsibility. The goal of Gestalt therapy is to raise clients' awareness regarding how they function in their environment (with family, at work, school, friends). The focus of therapy is more on what is happening (the moment-to-moment process) than what is being discussed (the content). Awareness is being alert to what are the most important events in clients' lives and their...

Conversion disorder

Conversion disorder is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as the DSM-IV-TR, as a mental disorder whose central feature is the appearance of symptoms affecting the patient's senses or voluntary movements that suggest a neurological or general medical disease or condition. Somatoform disorders are marked by persistent physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition, substance abuse, or other mental...