Acute abdomen

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Cardinal signs/symptoms

Common causes of pain

> Tenderness

> Rebound tenderness (percussion^pain)

> Rigidity (involuntary guarding)

> Absent bowel sounds

Renal Colic

Pyelonephritis Appendicitis

Pneumonia Cholecystitis Pyelonephritis Cholangitis

Renal Colic

Pyelonephritis Appendicitis

Appendicitis Ovarian cyst Ectopic pregnancy Renal colic

Pneumonia Splenic infarction

Pyelonephritis

Renal colic Diverticulitis

Remember

Pneumonia Splenic infarction

Pyelonephritis

Renal colic Diverticulitis

Remember

Bowel sounds Check hernial orifices Pulses

Signs of shock/hypotension -TPulse 4JVP 4 BP

The term acute abdomen implies a presentation with the sudden onset of abdominal pain with features on examination of tenderness, guarding and rebound tenderness. It most commonly arises from intra-abdominal pathologies, such as perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, perforated diverticulum, perforated appendix, ruptured aneurysm, is-chaemic bowel or trauma. However, rarely, extra-abdominal disease, such as pneumonia, myocardial infarction or acid-osis, can mimic the acute abdomen.

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