Goat Capra aegagrus f hircus

Goats live throughout the world but they flourish in humid tropical forest areas. Their number is still increasing, especially in the desert and the semi-desert areas where it is not possible to keep other domestic animals. Goats give meat, milk, leather, hair, wool, horn, and dung and have very low food requirements.

The domestic goat progenitor is the bezoar goat (C. aega-grus), which lived in western and central Asia. According to radiocarbon dating, the sheep was domesticated first but goats were more numerous than sheep in the early domestic period. The oldest domestic center of both species was Sierra Zagros at the border of Iraq and Iran. Determination of whether remains belong to wild or domestic goats is possible according to horn shape. Archaeologic findings show that the originally scimitar horns of wild goats changed during several hundred years (8000 to 7000 B.C.) to the twisted horns of domestic goats. We do not know why people preferred these animals with twisted horns or if the horn shape related to the behavior of goats, or their productivity.

The domestic goat quickly spread to all inhabited areas of Europe, Asia (to Sulawesi), and Africa. It preserved its animation, shrewdness, and obstinacy from its progenitors, which passes for happy malevolence. There are many feral domestic goat populations, for example, in New Zealand, in Australia, and unfortunately in the Galápagos and other islands where they cause severe ecological problems. There are now some 200 to 350 goat breeds.

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