Contents

Foreword ix

How to use this book xii

Advisory boards xiv

Contributing writers xvi

Contributing illustrators xx

Volume 12: Mammals I

What is a mammal? 3

Ice Age giants 17

Contributions of molecular genetics to phylogenetics 26

Structure and function 36

Adaptations for flight 52

Adaptations for aquatic life 62

Adaptations for subterranean life 69

Sensory systems, including echolocation 79

Life history and reproduction 89

Reproductive processes 101

Ecology 113

Nutritional adaptations 120

Distribution and biogeography 129

Behavior 140

Cognition and intelligence 149

Migration 164

Mammals and humans: Domestication and commensals 171

Mammals and humans: Mammalian invasives and pests 182

Mammals and humans: Field techniques for studying mammals 194

Mammals and humans: Mammals in zoos 203

Conservation 213

Order MONOTREMATA

Monotremes 227

Family: Echidnas 235

Family: Duck-billed platypus 243

Order DIDELPHIMORPHIA New World opossums

Family: New World opossums 249

Order PAUCITUBERCULATA Shrew opossums

Family: Shrew opossums 267

Order MICROBIOTHERIA Monitos del monte

Family: Monitos del monte 273

Order DASYUROMORPHIA

Australasian carnivorous marsupials 277

Family: Marsupial mice and cats, Tasmanian devil 287

Family: Numbat 303

Family: Tasmanian wolves 307

For further reading 311

Organizations 316

Contributors to the first edition 318

Glossary 325

Mammals species list 330

Geologic time scale 364

Index 365

Volume 13: Mammals II

Order PERAMELEMORPHIA

Bandicoots and bilbies 1

Family: Bandicoots 9

Subfamily: Bilbies 19

Order NOTORYCTEMORPHIA Marsupial moles

Family: Marsupial moles 25

Order DIPROTODONTIA

Koala, wombats, possums, wallabies, and kangaroos 31

Family: Koalas 43

Family: Wombats 51

Family: Possums and cuscuses 57

Family: Musky rat-kangaroos 69

Family: Rat-kangaroos 73

Family: Wallabies and kangaroos 83

Family: Pygmy possums 105

Family: Ringtail and greater gliding possums 113

Family: Gliding and striped possums 125

Family: Honey possums 135

Family: Feather-tailed possums 139

Order XENARTHRA

Sloths, anteaters, and armadillos 147

Family: West Indian sloths and two-toed tree sloths 155

Family: Three-toed tree sloths 161

Family: Anteaters 171

Family: Armadillos 181

Order INSECTIVORA

Insectivores 193

Family: Gymnures and hedgehogs 203

Family: Golden moles 215

Family: Tenrecs 225

Family: Solenodons 237

Family: Extinct West Indian shrews 243

Family: Shrews

I: Red-toothed shrews 247

II: White-toothed shrews 265

Family: Moles, shrew moles, and desmans 279

Order SCANDENTIA Tree shrews

Family: Tree shrews 289

Order DERMOPTERA Colugos

Family: Colugos 299

Order CHIROPTERA

Bats 307

Family: Old World fruit bats

I: Pteropus 319

II: All other genera 333

Family: Mouse-tailed bats 351

Family: Sac-winged bats, sheath-tailed bats, and ghost bats 355

Family: Kitti's hog-nosed bats 367

Family: Slit-faced bats 371

Family: False vampire bats 379

Family: Horseshoe bats 387

Family: Old World leaf-nosed bats 401

Family: American leaf-nosed bats 413

Family: Moustached bats 435

Family: Bulldog bats 443

Family: New Zealand short-tailed bats 453

Family: Funnel-eared bats 459

Family: Smoky bats 467

Family: Disk-winged bats 473

Family: Old World sucker-footed bats 479

Family: Free-tailed bats and mastiff bats 483

Family: Vespertilionid bats

I: Vespertilioninae 497

II: Other subfamilies 519

For further reading 527

Organizations 532

Contributors to the first edition 534

Glossary 541

Mammals species list 546

Geologic time scale 580

Index 581

Volume 14: Mammals III

Order PRIMATES

Primates 1

Family: Lorises and pottos 13

Family: Bushbabies 23

Family: Dwarf lemurs and mouse lemurs 35

Family: Lemurs 47

Family: Avahis, sifakas, and indris 63

Family: Sportive lemurs 73

Family: Aye-ayes 85

Family: Tarsiers 91

Family: New World monkeys

I: Squirrel monkeys and capuchins 101

II: Marmosets, tamarins, and Goeldi's monkey 115

Family: Night monkeys 135

Family: Sakis, titis, and uakaris 143

Family: Howler monkeys and spider monkeys 155

Family: Old World monkeys

I: Colobinae 171

II: Cercopithecinae 187

Family: Gibbons 207

Family: Great apes and humans

I: Great apes 225

II: Humans 241

Order CARNIVORA

Land and marine carnivores 255

Family: Dogs, wolves, coyotes, jackals, and foxes 265

Dogs and cats 287

Family: Bears 295

Family: Raccoons and relatives 309

Family: Weasels, badgers, skunks, and otters 319

Family: Civets, genets, and linsangs 335

Family: Mongooses and fossa 347

Family: Aardwolf and hyenas 359

Family: Cats 369

Family: Eared seals, fur seals, and sea lions 393

Family: Walruses 409

Family: True seals 417

For further reading 437

Organizations 442

Contributors to the first edition 444

Glossary 451

Mammals species list 456

Geologic time scale 490

Index 491

Volume 15: Mammals IV

Order CETACEA

Whales, dolphins, and porpoises 1

Family: Ganges and Indus dolphins 13

Family: Baijis 19

Family: Franciscana dolphins 23

Family: Botos 27

Family: Porpoises 33

Family: Dolphins 41

Family: Beaked whales 59

Family: Sperm whales 73

Family: Belugas and narwhals 81

Family: Gray whales 93

Family: Pygmy right whales 103

Family: Right whales and bowhead whales 107

Family: Rorquals 119

The ungulates 131

Ungulate domestication 145

Order TUBULIDENTATA Aardvarks

Family: Aardvarks 155

Order PROBOSCIDEA Elephants

Family: Elephants 161

Order HYRACOIDEA Hyraxes

Family: Hyraxes 177

Order SIRENIA

Dugongs, sea cows, and manatees 191

Family: Dugongs and sea cows 199

Family: Manatees 205

Order PERISSODACTYLA

Odd-toed ungulates 215

Family: Horses, zebras, and asses 225

Family: Tapirs 237

Family: Rhinoceroses 249

Order ARTIODACTYLA

Even-toed ungulates 263

Family: Pigs 275

Family: Peccaries 291

Family: Hippopotamuses 301

Family: Camels, guanacos, llamas, alpacas, and vicu├▒as 313

Family: Chevrotains 325

Family: Deer

Subfamily: Musk deer 335

Subfamily: Muntjacs 343

Subfamily: Old World deer 357

Subfamily: Chinese water deer 373

Subfamily: New World deer 379

Family: Okapis and giraffes 399

Family: Pronghorn 411

For further reading 419

Organizations 424

Contributors to the first edition 426

Glossary 433

Mammals species list 438

Geologic time scale 472

Index 473

Volume 16: Mammals V

Family: Antelopes, cattle, bison, buffaloes, goats, and sheep 1

I: Kudus, buffaloes, and bison 11

II: Hartebeests, wildebeests, gemsboks, oryx, and reedbucks 27

III: Gazelles, springboks, and saiga antelopes 45

IV: Dikdiks, beiras, grysboks, and steenboks 59

V: Duikers 73

VI: Sheep, goats, and relatives 87

Order PHOLIDOTA

Pangolins

Family: Pangolins 107

Order RODENTIA

Rodents 121

Family: Mountain beavers 131

Family: Squirrels and relatives

I: Flying squirrels 135

II: Ground squirrels 143

III: Tree squirrels 163

Family: Beavers 177

Family: Pocket gophers 185

Family: Pocket mice, kangaroo rats, and kangaroo mice 199

Family: Birch mice, jumping mice, and jerboas 211

Family: Rats, mice, and relatives

I: Voles and lemmings 225

II: Hamsters 239

III: Old World rats and mice 249

IV: South American rats and mice 263

V: All others 281

Family: Scaly-tailed squirrels 299

Family: Springhares 307

Family: Gundis 311

Family: Dormice 317

Family: Dassie rats 329

Family: Cane rats 333

Family: African mole-rats 339

Family: Old World porcupines 351

Family: New World porcupines 365

Family: Viscachas and chinchillas 377

Family: Pacaranas 385

Family: Cavies and maras 389

Family: Capybaras 401

Family: Agoutis 407

Family: Pacas 417

Family: Tuco-tucos 425

Family: Octodonts 433

Family: Chinchilla rats 443

Family: Spiny rats 449

Family: Hutias 461

Family: Giant hutias 469

Family: Coypus 473

Order LAGOMORPHA

Pikas, rabbits, and hares 479

Family: Pikas 491

Family: Hares and rabbits 505

Order MACROSCELIDEA Sengis

Family: Sengis 517

For further reading 533

Organizations 538

Contributors to the first edition 540

Glossary 547

Mammals species list 552

Geologic time scale 586

Index 587

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