Echidnas are solitary living, extremely mobile and have home ranges up to 494 acres (200 ha). Home ranges of several animals overlap and are not defended as territories. Individuals do not interact, forage communally, or use the same shelter sites. Short-beaked echidnas are active both day and night, depending on time of year and locality. They avoid the heat of the day because they do not sweat or pant. Long-beaked echidnas are thought to be totally nocturnal, but little is known about their natural history.

Echidnas rarely vocalize. Apart from audible snuffing sounds, there are a few reports of soft "cooing" or "purring."

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