Bali cattle Bos javanicus f domestica

Bali cattle is the domestic form of wild banteng (B. javanicus), which lives in the forests of Java, Borneo, Malaysia, and Thailand today. Its domestication took place in Java around 1000 B.C. Wild bantengs were caught and tamed in the Middle Ages, in Bali, Sumatra, and Java until the eighteenth century. Bali cattle are smaller than banteng, the horns lack the characteristic curvature, and the skull is smaller. The external sexual signs are weaker than in the wild species. The domestic species grows more rapidly and matures earlier. Elegant Bali cattle have adapted to life in tropics better than the zebu. It was never bred for a specific purpose and because of that it has no major economic value. Approximately 1.5 million individuals are bred today. It is used as other domestic cattle for field work and riding. Milk utility is low but meat has excellent quality and taste. Bali cattle are crossbred with the taurine cattle, and with the zebu, but male descendants are infertile. Bali cattle often run wild, and feral populations live in savanna in the south of Sulawesi and in Australia.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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