Takin

Budorcas taxicolor TAXONOMY

Budorcas taxicolor Hodgson, 1850, Mishmi Hills, Assam, India. OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Takin; German: Rindergemse, gnuziege; Spanish: Takin. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Heavy, solid build with stout limbs. Head and body length is 39-92 in (100-235 cm), height at shoulder 27-55 in (68-140 cm), and weight 330-880 lb (150-400 kg). Color ranges from yellowish white through to dark brown. Horns are thick and massive in both sexes.

DISTRIBUTION

Occurs in the eastern Himalaya (India, Bhutan, northern Myanmar) north through western China (eastern Tibet, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu).

HABITAT

Lives in rugged, rocky mountains covered in scrub, bamboo thickets, and forest at altitudes of 3,280-13,940 ft (1,000-4,250 m).

BEHAVIOR

Occurs in groups of 10-35 animals, with large groups reported in summer. The sexes occur together in August-September.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Mainly browses, feeding on forbs and leaves in summer and twigs and evergreen shoots in winter. May travel long distances to saltlicks.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. Mating takes place in July-August in Sichuan. Gestation in captivity lasts 200-220 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Regarded as Vulnerable. Two subspecies, golden takin (B. t. bedfordi) in Shaanxi, China, and Mishmi takin (B. t. taxicolor), are Endangered.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Hunted for its meat by indigenous peoples using snares, deadfalls, and spear traps. ♦

Common name /

Scientific name/

Physical

Habitat and

Conservation

Other common names

characteristics

behavior

Distribution

Diet

status

Japanese serow

Both sexes have short horns 3-6 In

Lives in montane forests at

Southern and central

Leaves, shoots, buds,

Not threatened

Capricornis crispus

(8-15 cm), slightly curved back. Length

4,920-8,200 ft (1,500-2,500

Japan (Honshu,

acorns, seeds,and grass.

French: Serow du Japon;

39-59 In (100-150 cm); height about

m). Occupy small home

Shikoku, and Kyushu).

German: Japonischer Serau;

28 In (70 cm).

ranges marked with

Spanish: Sirao de Japon

secretions from preorbital

glands. Mate in October-

November, gestation about

seven months.

Long-tailed goral

Color variable, from gray, brown, and

Coastal cliffs, forested

Russian Far East,

Graze and browse on

Vulnerable

Naemorhedus caudatus

whitish. Short, sharp horns up to 8 In

mountain slopes up to 3,280

Korean Peninsula, and

grasses, herbs, leaves,

French: Goral à queue long;

(21 cm). Body length of males up to 46

ft (1,000 m). Move to lower

northeast China.

shoots, twigs, and

German: Langschwanzengoral;

in (118 cm) and height 29 in (74 cm).

elevations in winter.

acorns. In coastal areas

Spanish: Goral

Weight to 70 lb (32 kg). Females smaller

may consume marine

and lighter.

grass and seaweed.

Southern chamois

Pale red-brown in summer, darker in

Rocky mountains and

Pyrenees (France,

Grasses, herbs; browse

Not threatened

Rupicapra pyrenaica

winter; white or pale patch on throat and

meadows above tree line.

Spain), Cantabrian

on trees in winter.

English: Apennine chamois;

neck. Horns short, hooked backwards.

Forest edges or in forests in

Mountains (Spain), and

French: Isard; German:

Length 39-47 in (100-120 cm); weight

winter. Diurnal. Usually in

Apennines (Italy).

Pyrenäengemse; Spanish:

55-132 lb (25-60 kg).

small groups.

Rebeco iberico

Dwarf blue sheep

Weight 61-86 lb (28-39 kg). Height

Lives below the forest belt at

Yangtze Gorge in

Not known.

Endangered

Pseudois schaeferi

28-31 in (70-80 cm).

around 8,528 ft (2,600 m) in

Sichuan, China.

French: Bouc bleu; German:

the Yangtze Gorge.

Zwergblauschaf; Spanish: Baral

Nilgiri tahr

Horns thick, short, curve backwards; up

Cliffs and grassy hills, 3,936-

Southern part of the

Grasses, sedges, and

Endangered

Hemitragus hylocrius

to about 16 in (40 cm) long in males,

7872 ft (1,200-2,600 m).

Western Ghats in Tamil

herbs.

English: Nilgiri ibex; French:

12 in (30 cm) in females. Stocky build

Nadu and Kerala, India.

Tahr; German: Tahr;

with short mane. Adult males weigh

Spanish: Tar

176-220 lb (80-100 kg).

[continued]

Common name / Scientific name/ Other common names

Physical characteristics

Habitat and behavior

Distribution

Diet

Conservation status

Wild goat Capra aegagrus

French: Chèvre egagre; German: Bezoarziege; Spanish: Egagro

East Caucasian tur Capra cylindricornis English: Dagestan tur; French: Bouquetin du caucase oriental: German: Ostkaukasischen Tur; Spanish: Tur oriental

Markhor Capra falconeri French: Markhor; German: Schraubenziege, Markhor; Spanish: Markhor

Alpine Ibex Capra ibex

French: Bouquetin des Alpes: German: Alpen-Steinbock; Spanish: Ibice de los Alpes

Spanish Ibex Capra pyrenaica French: Bouquetin d'Espagne; German: Spanischer Steinbock; Spanish: Cabra iberica

Walia ibex Capra walie

French: Bouquetin d'Ethiopie; German: Afrikanischer Steinbock; Spanish: Ibice de Ethiopia

Urial

Ovis orientalis French: Mouflon; German: Mufflon, Wildschaf; Spanish: Muflon

Argali

Ovis ammon

French: Argali, mouflon d'Asie; German: Argali; Spanish: Argali

Snow sheep Ovis nivicola French: Mouflon du Kamtchatka; German: Schneeschaf; Spanish: Carnero de Kamchatka

Limbs strong, build stocky. Males horns are slim, scimitar-shaped and strongly keeled, to 51 in (130 cm). Length 47-63 in (120-160 cm); weight 55-209 lb (25-95 kg).

Massive body. Horns are large, spiral gently up, out, and back; to 51 in (130 cm) in males, 12 in (30 cm) in females. Length 51-59 in (130-150 cm); height 31-39 in (79-98 cm); weight 121-220 lb (55-100 kg).

Arid rocky hills, steep slopes up to 13,776 ft (4,200 m). Active early morning and evening; also during the night in hot weather.

Steep, rocky areas 2,60013,776 ft (800-4,200 m). Seasonal migrations may cover 4,920-6,560 ft (1,5002,000 m). Usually in small groups, larger occasionally (to 500).

Crete; Turkey to Pakistan and Iran, Caucasus, and Turkmenistan.

Eastern Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia).

Limbs short and thick. Males have a black Live at and around the treeline Tajikistan, Afghanistan, beard and long mane. Distinctive horns are twisted in to a spiral, reaching 63 in (160 cm) in length. Length 55-71 in (140-180 cm), height 26-39 in (65100 cm), and weight 176-242 lb (80-110 kg).

Horns are scimitar shaped, and swept back, to 33 in (85 cm) in length with prominent transverse ridges on the front surface. Length 51-59 in (130-150 cm). Solidly built; weight reaches 264 lb (120 kg).

Horn shape varies; usually twisted outwards and upwards. Length 46-60 in (116-153 cm). Weight 55-176 lb (2580 kg).

Horns swept back, long and heavy. Weight 176-275 lb (80-125 kg).

Horns relatively light and curl out and round. Length 43-57 in (110-145 cm); weight 55-190 lb (25-87 kg).

on precipitous mountain slopes from 2,300 to 8,856 ft (700-2,700 m), occasionally to 13,120 ft (4,000 m). Occur in small groups of females and young. Males usually solitary.

Lives above the tree line at 8,200-11,480 ft (2,5003,500 m). May enter upper level of forests in spring in search of new grass. Use cliffs for escape. Mate in December January, gestation lasts 145-160 days.

Mountains. Mainly diurnal. Rut takes place from early November to the middle of December. In groups of 5060 outside the breeding season.

Frequents escarpments, steep terraces, gorges, and screes at 8,200-14,750 ft (2,500-4,500 m) with montane forest or subalpine scrub. Mainly crepuscular. Mate throughout the year with a peak March-May.

Inhabits hills and mountains, mainly in arid or semiraid areas. Reaches 15,000 ft (4,570 m) in Ladakh, but usually at lower elevations. Mostly in open country but in Corsica lives in deciduous woodland.

High altitude hills, valleys, and plateaux. Prefers relatively open steep terrain. Occurs up to 19,000 ft (5,800 m) in Tibet, China.

and Pakistan.

Graze and browse on grasses, herbs, and shrubs.

Grass, herbs; shrubs and leaves in winter

Vulnerable

Vulnerable

Graze and browse on a range of grasses, herbs, and shrubs.

Endangered

Alps of Italy, Switzerland, Austria and Germany.

Mountains of northern, central, and southern Spain.

Simien Mountains of Ethiopia. Range decreased significantly 1920-1970; in 2002 was restricted to 16 mi (25 km) of the northern escarpment.

Corsica, Cyprus, Turkey, and Iran through Central Asia and east to the upper Indus Valley. Introduced into western Europe.

Feeds on grasses, herbs, and lichens.

Not threatened

Grasses, herbs; occasionally shrubs and lichens.

Grasses, herbs, leaves, shoots, and lichens. Requires year-round availability of water.

Grasses, herbs, and shrubs.

Not threatened

Critically Endangered

Vulnerable

Mountains of central Asia, China, and Mongolia.

Feeds on grasses, sedges, herbs, and low shrubs.

Vulnerable

Massive horns curl round and to the front and outwards past the face. Shape varies with subspecies. Can attain 75 in (190 cm) in length, 20 in (50 cm) in basal circumference. Body length 71-79 in (180-200 cm).

Horns heavy, to 44 in (111 cm) in males, Coastal escarpments, rugged Northeast Siberia, from Sedges, rushes, grasses, Not threatened curl out and around.Length 63-70 in (162-178 cm); weight 189-220 lb (86100 kg), may reach 308 lb (140 kg) in autumn. Females are about half the weight of males.

parts of tundra mountains; usually below 4,260 ft (1,300 m); occasionally in forest edge in winter. Sedentary; males and females separate in summer, mixed groups in winter. Herds rarely over 20.

just north of Lake Baikal to Kamchatka.

herbs, ferns, lichens, shrubs, and fruit. Fifty species known in the diet.

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