Species accounts

Southern birch mouse

Sicista subtilis

SUBFAMILY

Smintinae

TAXONOMY

Sicista subtilis (Pallas, 1773), Tobol River Valley, Kurgan Oblast, Russia. Four subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Steppe sicista; German: (Steppen-) Streifenmaus, (Steppen-) Birkenmaus; French: Siciste des steppes; Russian: Stepnaya myshovka.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 2.4-3 in (61-73 mm); tail 3-3.2 in (75-82 mm); body mass 0.2-0.4 oz (6-10 g). Upperparts striped light tan and brownish and paler underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

From eastern Austria to lake Baikal in south-central Siberia. HABITAT

Flatland steppes of different types, fields, meadows at the southern age of forest zones.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary. In captivity, females chase away the males before the birth of pups. Active in dusk and night, and sometimes in the day time.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Arthropods, seeds, roots, bulbs, and plant greens.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. Usually produces one litter of two to eight pups in May to beginning of June. Young from early litters can

Allactodipus Bobrinskii
I Euchoreutes naso

I Sicista subtilis I Allactodipus bobrinskii breed in the same birth year. Gestation period is not less than 25 days, lactation 33-35 days. Pups stay in the burrow 27-34 days.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened; a common species.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Long-eared jerboa

Euchoreutes naso

SUBFAMILY

Euchoreutinae

TAXONOMY

Euchoreutes naso Sclater, 1891, Xinjiang, China. OTHER COMMON NAMES

German: Langohrspringer, Riesenohrspringmaus; Russian: Dlinnoukhii tushkanchik.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 3-4.3 in (74-110 mm); tail 6-7.3 in (152-185 mm); body mass 1-1.6 oz (23-45g). Upperparts reddish yellow to pale russset and white underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

Deserts of China (Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang) and South of Mongolia (Trans-Altai Gobi).

HABITAT

Dry, sandy gravel watercourses, stony plain watersheds, sandy-gravel plateau in deserts with very sparse vegetation.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary, but non-aggressive territoriality. Very large, highly overlapping home ranges. Often leaves scent marks with a strong smell.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Diet includes arthropods and even lizards. Often hunts flying insects.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. In Mongolia produces one litter of two to six pups in June. Young start to breed at the next year. Gestation period is unknown. Pups stay in the burrow not less than one month.

CONSERVATION STATUS

It is considered to be a rare species due to permanently low densities, and is classified by IUCN as Endangered. Included in the Red Data Book of Mongolia.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Five-toed pygmy jerboa

Cardiocranius paradoxus

SUBFAMILY

Cardiocraniinae

TAXONOMY

Cardiocranius paradoxus Satunin, 1903, China, Gansu. OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Satunin's five-toed pygmy jerboa, five-toed dwarf jerboa; German: Fünfzehige Zwergspringmaus; Russian: Patipalyi karlikovyi tushkanchik.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 2-3 in (52-68 mm); tail 3-4 in (68-91 mm); body mass 0.5-0.7 oz (13-19 g). Upperparts grayish buff and white underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

Deserts and semi-deserts of western and southern Mongolia, northwestern and northern China and eastern Kazakhstan. Range includes four isolated areas. Species range has at least four isolated portions.

HABITAT

Flat and slightly inclined mountain bases and foot hills with sandy to clay/gravel soils and a predominance of grass of genus Stipa in plant communities.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary, but with overlapping home ranges that vary from 1.5 to 7.4 acres (0.6-3 ha) in size.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds mostly on seeds and fruits. Green vegetation present in the diet only during spring.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. Breeds in summer, and has only one litter of one to five pups annually. Young breed in second year of life. Duration of gestation and lactation are unknown.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Traditionally, it is considered rare, and it is included in the Red Data Books of Russia and Kazakhstan. In Mongolia, however, it is a rather common jerboa, although is still not well studied. There is no information on effects of habitat loss as a result of overgrazing. IUCN classifies it as Vulnerable.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Comb-toed jerboa

Paradipus ctenodactylus

SUBFAMILY

Dipodinae (Paradipodinae) TAXONOMY

Paradipus ctenodactylus (Vinogradov, 1929) Turkmenistan. OTHER COMMON NAMES

German: Kammzehen-Springmaus; Russian: Grebnepalyi tushkanchik.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 5.5-6.5 in (140-165 mm); tail 7-9 in (180-225 mm); body mass 4-6.5 oz (112-185 g). Upperparts hazel to pinkish cinnamon and white undernath.

DISTRIBUTION

Deserts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and northern Iran.

HABITAT

Inhabitant of moving sands (barkhans) with very sparse vegetation.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary with vast home ranges of up to 1.2 mi (2 km) oriented along sand ridges.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds on plant greens of a few species of perennial sand desert plants. Seeds appear in a diet only at the end of summer and in fall. Forages at slopes of dunes, but transports food to the top ridges to ingest.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. In Karakum desert breeds one time in spring, in western Kyzylkum two times, once in the spring and summer. Only two- to three-year old females participate in the second wave of breeding. Litter size is small and stable with two to three pups. Duration of gestation and lactation periods are unknown.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Common. Density is always low, but stable from one to five individuals per 2.5 acres (1 ha). Arrangements for stabilization of moving sands negatively effect this jerboa.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Dipus Sagitta

H Allactaga elater H Cardiocranius paradoxus

Hairy-footed jerboa

Dipus sagitta

SUBFAMILY

Dipodinae

TAXONOMY

Dipus sagitta (Pallas, 1773), Pavlodarskaya Oblast, Kazakhstan. Ten subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Rough-legged jerboa, feather-footed jerboa, northern three-toed jerboa; German: Rauhfub-Springmaus, Raufübige Wüstenspringmaus, Pfeilspringmaus; Russian: Mokhnonogii tushkanchik.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 4.5-6 in (115-145 mm); tail 7-7.1 in (175-180 mm); body mass 2.4-4 oz (69-104 g). Upperparts orangish and black during winter and pale sandy buff during summer. White underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

Sand deserts of northern Iran, Middle Asia (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, southwestern Kazakhstan), Kazakhstan, Central Asia (Mongolia, China), southeast of European Russia, and south of Altai Republic (RF). There are 10 large isolated range fragments and several small ranges.

HABITAT

Inhabitant of sandy habitats found in steppe, semi-desert and desert zones. In Central Asia (Mongolia, China), the hairy-footed jerboa also lives in areas with hard, rocky/gravel surfaces. Vegetation is always sparse. At the most northern part of the range inhabits pine forests.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary with overlapping home ranges. In Mongolia, nonaggressive contacts dominate in nature. In captivity, hairy-footed jerboas easily form pairs and the male and female sleep in one nest.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds mainly on seeds and desert plant greens. Arthropods sporadically supplement diet.

Great Jerboa Habitat

H Dipus sagitta H Paradipus ctenodactylus

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. Adult female bears two litters in spring and fall. Juveniles of first litters become mature at the age of 2.5 to three months, and participate in the fall breeding. Pregnancy continues not less than 35 days, lactation 40-45 days. Litter size varies from one to eight pups, commonly three to five offspring. In spring, lactation overlaps with gestation.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Common, not threatened. One subspecies D. sagitta nogai is considered vulnerable because of steppe expansion in Southeastern European Russia beginning in 1990 and resulting in overgrowth of open sand dunes.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Little five-toed jerboa

Allactaga elater

SUBFAMILY

Allactaginae

TAXONOMY

Allactaga elater (Lichtenstein, 1828), Kyrgiz steppe, Kazakhstan. Seven subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Small five-toed jerboa; French: Petite jerboa; German: Zwerg-Pferdespringer, Kleiner Erdhase, Kleine Springmaus; Russian: Malyi tushkanchik

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 3.5-5 in (90-120 mm); tail 5.5-7.5 in (140-190 mm); body mass 1-3 oz (32-77 g). Upperparts sandy colored and paler underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

Deserts and semi-deserts of southeastern Europe, Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, Iran, northeastern Turkey, Afghanistan, western Pakistan, northwestern China, and southwest Mongolia. Species range appears uniform with two relatively small isolated pockets.

HABITAT

Inhabitant of diverse spectra of desert and semidesert habitats with patchy vegetation of small perennial shrubs, herbs, and succulents. Soils vary from hard clay to sometimes stony and also sandy.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary with overlapping home ranges. Avoidance of contact.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds mainly on seeds and desert plant greens. Arthropods and plant roots are rarely ingested.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Polygamous. Adult female can bare two litters in spring and fall. Juveniles born in spring participate in the fall breeding. Duration of pregnancy is unclear. Juveniles emerged from the maternal burrow 35-40 days of life. In spring, lactation overlaps with gestation. Litter size varies from one to nine pups, commonly three to six offspring.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Common, not threatened. Ranges of two subspecies, A. elater caucasicus (Nehring, 1900) and A. elater aralychensis (Satunin, 1901) are small.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Can be implicated in epizootic spread of plague. In some regions, the little five-toed jerboa is considered an agricultural pest. ♦

Bobrinski's jerboa

Allactodipus bobrinskii

SUBFAMILY

Allactaginae

TAXONOMY

Allactodipus bobrinskii Kolesnikov, 1937, Uzbekistan. OTHER COMMON NAMES

German: Bobrinski's Pferde-Springer; Russian: Tushkanchik Bobrinskogo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 4-5 in (110-135 mm); tail 7-8 in (170-200 mm); body mass 2-3 oz (52-77 g). Upperparts reddish brown and black to sandy and grayish buff; whitish underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

Endemic to central Turan lowland. Range consists of six isolated portions, three in Turkmenistan and three in Uzbekistan.

HABITAT

Inhabitant of clay and clay-stony plains with a thin sand-gravel sheet. Vegetation is sparse and represented by small succulent shrubs from the Chenopodiaceae family.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary with overlapping home ranges of 2.5-6 acres (1-2.5 ha). Two to three daily burrows are used in rotation. Contact between neighbors is avoided.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds mainly on vegetative parts of plants. Seeds and insects are ingested to a lesser degree.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Little information is available. Assumed polygamous. Adult females can produce two litters in spring and fall. There is no exact data on the duration of gestation and lactation. Juveniles emerge from the maternal burrow at the age of 40-45 days. In spring, lactation overlaps with gestation. Litter size vary from two to seven pups, commonly four to six offspring.

CONSERVATION STATUS

A fairly common species with a restricted and fragmented range, and a relatively low population density that varies from 0.5 to 3 individuals per 2.5 acres (1 ha) in optimal habitats.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Common name / Scientific name/ Other common names

Physical characteristics

Habitat and behavior

Distribution

Diel

Conservation status

Four-toed jerboa Allactaga tetradactyla German: Pferdespringer

Lesser fat-tailed jerboa Pygeretmus platyurus

Greater fat-tailed jerboa Pygeretmus shitkovi

Thick-tailed pygmy jerboa Salpingotus crassicauda

Lichtenstein's jerboa Eremodlpus llchtenstelnl

Lesser Egyptian jerboa Jaculus jaculus

Greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis

Andrews's three-toed jerboa Stylodipus andrewsi

Chinese jumping mouse Eozapus setchuanus

[continued]

Upperparts mixed russet and black to sand and grayish buff. Underparts are white, white stripe on hip. Eyes are large, ears are long and slender. Head and body length 3.5-10.4 in (9-26.3 cm), tail length 5.6-12 in (14.2-30.8 cm), weight 1.8 oz (52 g).

Sandy brown above and white below. Tail has no terminal tuft. Head and body length 2.9-3.7 in (7.5-9.5 cm), tail length 3-3.5 in (7.8-9 cm).

Sandy brown above and white below. Tail has no terminal tuft. Head and body length 3.8-4.8 in (9.7-12.2 cm), tail length 3.7-5 in (9.4-12.8 cm).

Upperparts sandy or buffy, underparts are pale yellowish. No terminal tuft on tail. Head and body length 1.6-2.2 in (4.1-5.7 cm), tail length 3.6-4.9 in (9.3-12.6 cm).

Upperparts dark sandy or buff, underparts are whitish. White stripe on hip. Eyes and ears are relatively large. Head and body length 3.7-6.3 in (9.5-16 cm), tail length 5-9.8 in (12.8-25 cm).

Upperparts pale to dark sandy or buff, underparts are white. Head and body length 3.7-6.3 in (9.5-16 cm), tail length 5-9.8 in (12.8-5 cm), weight 1.9 oz (55 g).

Upperparts pale to dark sandy or buff, underparts are white. Head and body length 3.7-6.3 in (9.5-16 cm), tail length 5-9.8 in (12.8-25 cm).

Upperparts sandy or buff sprinkled with black tips and black hairs. Buffy appearance along sides of body. Underparts, backs of feet, and hip stripe are white. Ears are small. Head and body length 3.9-5.1 in (10-13 cm), tail length 5.1-6.4 in (13.2-16.3 cm).

Upperparts tawny orange, underparts are white. Tail is dark above and white below. Hind feet, legs, and tail are very long. Dark streak down middle of breast and belly, white tip on tail. Head and body length 3.1-3.9 in (8-10 cm), tail

Coastal salt marshes and clay deserts. Burrows are simple, about 23.6-59.1 in (60-150 cm) deep. Nocturnal.

Clay and saline deserts and semideserts. Nocturnal, terrestrial, poor jumpers and diggers. One reproductive season from May to June. Five to six young per litter

Clay and saline deserts and semideserts. Nocturnal, terrestrial, poor jumpers and diggers. One reproductive season from May to June. Five to six young per litter.

Sand dunes overgrown with tamarisk, saxaul, and saltwort. Burrows are up to 10 ft (3 m) in length.

Variety of habitats, including both rolling and relatively flat sandy deserts, saline deserts, rocky valleys, and meadows. Has only one litter per year. Two to eight offspring per litter.

Variety of habitats, including both rolling and relatively flat sandy deserts, saline deserts, rocky valleys, and meadows. Has only one litter per year. Two to eight offspring per litter.

Variety of habitats, including both rolling and relatively flat sandy deserts, saline deserts, rocky valleys, and meadows. Has only one litter per year. Two to eight offspring per litter.

Deserts and steppes, as well as cultivated fields and pine forests. Digs seasonal burrows, the permanent ones being complex. Generally nocturnal, hibernating from September to March.

Beside streams in cool forests. Behavioral and reproductive patterns unknown.

Coastal gravel plains of Egypt and eastern Libya, from near Alexandria to the Gulf of Sirte.

Primarily vegetarian.

Threatened

Western, central, and eastern Kazakhstan.

Eastern Kazakhstan, region of Lake Balkhash.

Green vegetation, bulbs, spiders, and insects.

Green vegetation, bulbs, spiders, and insects.

Not threatened

Steppes and deserts of Animal (insects and northwest China. arachnids) and vegetable food.

Roots, sprouts, seeds, grains, and cultivated vegetables.

Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, from Caspian Sea to Aral Sea, and south of Lake Balkhash.

Desert and semidesert Roots, sprouts, seeds, areas from Morocco grains, and cultivated and Mauritania to vegetables. southwestern Iran and Somalia.

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Vulnerable

Not threatened

Not threatened

Morocco to southern Israel.

Mongolia.

Roots, sprouts, seeds, grains, and cultivated vegetables.

Lichens, rhizomes, bulbs,seeds,and wheat.

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Not threatened

Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and northwestern Yunnan, China.

Unknown, but most likely vegetarian or some insects.

Vulnerable length 3.9-5.9 in (10-15 cm).

Common name /

Scientific name/

Physical

Habitat and

Conservation

Other common names

characteristics

behavior

Distribution

Diet

status

Woodland jumping mouse

Pelage Is coarse with tricolor pattern.

Spruce-fir and hemlock-

Southeastern Manitoba

Fruits, nuts, and other

Not threatened

Napaeozapus insignis

Back brown to black, sides are orange

hardwood forests in cool,

to Labrador, Canada,

kinds of vegetation.

German: Waldhüpfmaus

with yellow or red tint, underparts are white. Tail is grayish brown above and white below. Head and body length 3.13.9 in (8-10 cm), tail length 4.5-6.3 in (11.5-16 cm), weight 0.6-0.9 oz (17-26 g).

moist places with dense vegetation. Also found in bogs and swamps or along streams but also may occur far from free surface water. Mainly nocturnal.

and Pennsylvania, United States, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.

Books

Corbet, G. B., and J. E. Hill. A World List of Mammalian Species. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Fokin, I. M. Jerboas. St. Petersburg: Izdatelstvo LGU, 1978. (In Russian).

-. Locomotion and Morphology of Locomotive Organs of

Jerboas. St. Petersburg: Nauka Press, 1978. (In Russian).

Gambarian, P. P. "Superfamily Groups of Rodents." In

Rodents: Materialy VI Vsesoyusnogo soveshaniya. St. Petersburg: Nauka Press, 1983.

Nowak, Robert M. Walker Mammals of the World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Ognev, S. I. "Jerboas." In Mammals of the USSR and Neighboring Countries. Moscow and St. Petersburg: Izdatelstvo AN SSSR, 1948. (In Russian).

Shenbrot, G. I., V. E. Sokolov, V. G. Heptner, and Yu. M. Kovalskaya. "Dipodoidea." In Mammals of Russia and Neighboring Regions. Moscow: Nauka Press, 1995. (In Russian).

Sokolov V. E., V. S. Lobachev, and V. N. Orlov. The Mammals of Mongolia. Family Didodidae: Euchoreutinae, Cardiocraniinae, Dipodinae. Moscow: Nauka Press, 1996 (In Russian).

Vinogradov, B. S. "Jerboas." In Fauna of the USSR. Mammals. Moscow-St. Petersburg: Izdatelstvo AN SSSR, 1937. (In Russian).

Periodicals

Rogovin, K. A., and G. I. Shenbrot. "Geographical Ecology of Mongolian Desert Rodents." Journal of Biogeography 22 (1995): 111-128.

Simpson, G. G. "The Principles of Classification and

Classification of Mammals." Bulletin of American Museum of Natural History 85 (1945): 1-350.

Stinson, N. "Home Range of the Western Jumping Mouse, Zapusprinceps, in the Colorado Rocky Mountains." Great Basin Naturalist 37 (1977): 87-90

Vorontsov, N. N., N. A. Malygina, and S. I. Radjabli. "Chromosomes of Jerboas (Rodentia, Dipodidae)." Zoologicheskii zjurnal 50 (1971): 1853-1860. (In Russian)

Organizations

The American Society of Mammalogists.

Web site: <http://www.mammalsociety.org/>

IUCN—The World Conservation Union. Rue Mauverney 28, Gland, 1196 Switzerland. Phone: +41 (22) 999 0000. Fax: +41 (22) 999 0002. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.iucn.org>

United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Web site: <http://www.fws.gov/>

Konstantin A. Rogovin, PhD

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