Salts dikdik

Madoqua saltiana

TAXONOMY

Antilope saltiana (Desmarest, 1816), Ethiopia. As many as six proposed subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

French: Dik-dik de Salt; German: Eritrea-Dikdik; Spanish: Dik-dik de Salt.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Small, delicate antelope, with short, blunt muzzle. Length 19-24 in (49-60 cm); height 13-16 in (33-40 cm); weight 5.5-9 lb (2.5-4 kg). Fur on back is grayish brown and freckled, shading into a pale orange on sides and legs. Belly, interior of legs, underside of tail, and chin are white. Ears large and lined with white fur. Longer fur on head is reddish brown; conspicuous white ring around the eye. Horns on males up to 3.5 in (9 cm) and straight.

DISTRIBUTION

Restricted to arid bushlands and semi-desert scrub in Horn of Africa south from Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia to northern Kenya. Occurs from sea level up to 5,000 ft (1,500 m). Largest populations in Somalia and Ethiopia.

HABITAT

From evergreen bushlands to sub-desert scrub habitats, often found on valley bottoms and hillsides. Suggested densities in optimal habitat up to 36 per mi2 (14 per km2), but more typically 5-10 per mi2 (2-4 per km2).

BEHAVIOR

Families share territorial defense and all members use urine and dung to mark territory boundaries. Subordinate males and females mark dominant males with pre-orbital secretions in what is thought to be submissive behavior. Erection of crest of fur on head thought to be display of dominance by males and is often associated with a high-stepping strut and flashing of orange fur along limbs and flanks. Vocalizations include a double whistle used to warn other group members of approaching danger.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Browses on herbs, leaves, shoots, fruits, and roots often close to ground. Feeding occurs primarily at night and during early morning and late afternoon hours. Generally able to survive without access to open water.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Typically occurs as monogamous pairs or family groups of pairs with one or two young on territories of 10-50 acres (4-20 ha). Breeding pairs are likely stable over long periods. One young born after a gestation period estimated at five or six months. Weaning thought to occur at three to four months.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Lower Risk/Least Concern. Despite its restricted distribution, the global population is estimated in the hundreds of thousands. However, this animal is vulnerable to over-hunting, habitat alteration, and competition with domestic livestock. Numbers have declined in areas of high human settlement. Hunted with nets and snares.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Little is known about cultural significance of this species. Contributes to subsistence hunting throughout its range. Other economic significance is small. ♦

Common name / Scientific name/ Other common names

Physical characteristics

Habitat and behavior

Distribution

Diet

Conservation status

Guenther's dikdik Madoqua guenthen English: Guenther's long-snouted dikdik; French: Dik-Dik de Guenther; German: Günther Dikdik; Spanish: Dikdik de Gunther

Silver dikdik Madoqua piacentinii French: Dik-Dik d'argent; German: Piacentini Dikdik; Spanish: Dikdik de argentado

Royal antelope Neotragus pygmaeus French: Antilope royale; German: Kleinstbockchen; Spanish: Antílope de real

Suni

Neotragus moschatus French: Antilope musquee; German: Moschusbockchen; Spanish: Suni

Sharpe's grysbok Raphicerus sharpei English: Sharpe's grysbuck, Sharpe's steinbok, Tropiese grysbok; French: Grysbok du Sharpe; German: Sharpegreisbock; Spanish: Grysbok de Sharpe

Cape grysbok Raphicerus melanotis English: Grysbok, Cape grysbuck; French: Grysbok du cap; German: Kaapgreisbock; Spanish: Grysbok de capa

Beira

Dorcatragus megalotis French: Beira, dorcatrague; German: Beira; Spanish: Beira

Small and slender with extended, elastic nose. Coat grizzled gray mixed with brown, yellow, and white, with white undersides and red-orange crest of fur on head. Males with sharp, annulated horns up to 4.5 in. (9.8 cm), slanted backwards. Length 22-26 in (55-65 cm); height 14-18 in (35-45 cm); weight 812 lb (3.5-5.5 kg).

Smallest dikdik, with short, blunt muzzle. Back and sides grizzled silver with sandy-tan legs, undersides and crest. Males with short, sharp horns up to 3 in. (7 cm), slanted backwards. Length 1720 in (45-52 cm); height 12-14 in (3035 cm); weight 6-9 lb (2.5-4 kg).

Smallest of the horned bovids; rabbit sized. Crouched in appearance. Reddish to golden brown fur, darker on head and along back; white on underside of body and tail and on chest and chin. Small horns up to one inch (2 cm) present on males and slanted backwards. Length 18-22 in (45-55 cm); height 9-12 in (22-30 cm); weight 4-8 lb (2-3.5 kg).

Crouched in appearance. Shiny fur is dark brown to rufous and speckled; white to gray undersides extending from tail to chin and including interior of limbs. Males possess thin, annulated horns up

Dry brush and scrub habitats where thickets provide food and cover. Territorial, occurs in monogamous pairsor singly.

Low, dense coastal scrub thickets.

to 5 in (13 cm) and greatly enlarged facial fiercely territorial, demarcate glands. Length 22-25 in (55-63 cm); height 13-16 in (32-40 cm); weight 913 lb (4-6 kg).

territories with scent, auditory and visual displays. Most active at night.

Body is reddish brown to tan speckled with white; whitish to gray face, throat and undersides. Large, white-lined ears; "skirt" of white-tipped fur extending over the hindquarters. Males with short conical as pairs or singly on small horns up to 4 in (10 cm), widely spaced territories demarcated with and vertical. Length 24-31 in (60-80 cm) height 16-24 in (40-60 cm); weight 15-26 lb (7-12 kg).

Body is reddish brown speckled with white; whitish to gray chin, throat, ears, and undersides. Short, compact muzzle. Males with short, smooth horns up to 5 in (13 cm), angled vertically. Length 26-32 in (65-80 cm); height 18-24 in (45-60 cm); weight 18-29 lb (8-13 kg).

Slender, long-legged, and long-necked. Fur thick and gray on back developing into a darker band along sides from front elbow to back thigh. Throat, chin and underparts off white; limbs and head rufous. Ears large and lined with white fur. Sharp, broad-set horns up to 5 in (13 cm) on males. Length 2.6-2.8 ft (80-86 cm); height 1.6-2 ft (50-60 cm); weight 20-25 lb (9-11.5 kg).

Locally common In parts of Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, and Kenya.

Primarily a browser of green leaves, buds, and shoots.

Confined to the coastal plain of Somalia.

Browses on leaves, buds, and shoots.

Dense undergrowth, forest, and forest edges in moist and humid environments. Occur singly or in pairs on small territories. Shy and secretive, hides to avoid detection and escapes with short bursts when approached.

Coastal forest and areas of heavy undergrowth. Occur as pairs or small polygynous groups on territories of 515 acres (2-6 ha). Males

Occurs patchily in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, and Ghana.

Fresh leaves and buds, shoots, fungi, and fruit.

Prefers areas of considerable cover such as secondary growth, brush, riverine habitats, and thickets. Occur dung middens. Most active at night.

Occurs In scrub and brush on sand dunes,at the base of hills and In riverine habitats. Occur singly or as loosely associated pairs. Males and females share territories or overlapping home ranges. Most active at night.

Arid, rugged mountain habitats where rock and low brush provides forage and cover. Occur singly, in pairs, or in groups of up to 12 animals on large home ranges.

From Lake Victoria south to the Transvaal west through the Zambezi valley, east to the coast of Mozambique.

Restricted to the southern Cape of South Africa.

Browses on leaves and shoots, flowers, fruits.

Lower Risk/ Least Concern

Vulnerable

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Occurs patchily east of Browses on fresh leaves the Rift Valley from and shoots, flowers,

Somalia to northeastern roots, and fungi. South Africa.

Lower Risk/

Conservation

Dependent

Lower Risk/

Conservation

Dependent

Primarily browses on shrubs, flowers and fruit. May go long periods without water.

Lower Risk/

Conservation

Dependent

Restricted to mountain- Leaves of small shrubs ous regions of northern and bushes, also Somalia. grasses.

Vulnerable

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