Estes, R. D. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores and Primates. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: The University of California Press, 1991.

Vrba, E. S., and G. B. Schaller, eds. Antelopes, Deer and Relatives: Fossil Record, Behavioral Ecology, Systematics, and Conservation. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000.


Gatesy, J., D. Yelon, R. DeSalle, and E. S. Vrba. "Phylogeny of the Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia), Based on Mitochondrial Ribosomal DNA Sequences." Molecular Biology and Evolution 9 (1992): 433-446.

Geist, V. "The Evolution of Horn-like Organs." Behaviour 27 (1966): 177-214.

Hassanin, A., A. Seveau, H. Thomas, H. Bocherens, D. Billiou, and B. X. Nguyen. "Evidence from DNA that the Mysterious 'Linh Duong' (Pseudonovibos spiralis) Is Not a New Bovid." Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Serie Ill-Sciences de la Vie-Life Sciences 324 (2001): 71-80.

Luikart, G., L. Gielly, L. Excoffier, J. D. Vigne, J. Bouvet, and P. Taberlet. "Multiple Maternal Origins and Weak Phylogeographic Structure in Domestic Goats." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of The United States Of America 98 (2001): 5927-5932.

Lundrigan, B. "Morphology of Horns and Fighting Behavior in the Family Bovidae." Journal of Mammalogy 77 (1996): 462-475.

Roberts, S. C. "The Evolution of Hornedness in Female Ruminants." Behaviour 133 (1996): 399-442.

Thomas, H., A. Seveau, and A. Hassanin. "The Enigmatic New Indochinese Bovid, Pseudonovibos spiralis: An Extraordinary Forgery." Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences Serie III-Sciences de la Vie-Life Sciences 324 (2001): 81-86.


2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <http://www.redlist .org>.

David M. Shackleton, PhD Alton S. Harestad, PhD

0 0

Post a comment