Resources

Books

Brotherton, P. N. M. The Evolution of Monogamy in the Dik-dik. PhD thesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1994.

East, R. African Antelope Database 1998. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1999.

Gosling, L. M. "The Even-toed Ungulates: Order

Artiodactyla." In Social Orders in Mammals, edited by R. E. Brown and D. MacDonald. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Grzimek, B. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1972.

IUCN. World Conservation Union Red List of Threatened Animals. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 2000.

Kingdon, J. East African Mammals, volumes 3C and D (Bovids). New York: Academic Press, 1982.

Vrba, E. S. "The Fossil Record of African Antelopes

(Mammalia, Bovidae) in Relation to Human Evolution and Paleoclimate." In Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins, edited by E. S. Vrba, G. H. Denton, T. C. Partridge, and L. H. Burckle. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press and The American Society of Mammalogists, 1993.

Periodicals

Brashares, J. S., and P. Arcese. "Scent Marking in a Territorial African Antelope: I. The Maintenance of Borders between Male Oribi." Animal Behaviour 57 (1999): 1-10.

Brashares, J. S., and P. Arcese. "Role of Forage, Habitat, and Predation in the Behavioural Plasticity of a Small African Antelope." Journal of Animal Ecology 71 (2002): 626-638.

Dubost, G., and F. Feer. "Saisons de Reproduction des Petits Ruminants dans le Nord-est du Gabon, en Fonction des Variations des Ressources Alimentaires." Mammalia 56 (1992): 25-43.

Dunbar, R. I. M., and E. P. Dunbar. "Social Organization and Ecology of the Klipspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) in Ethiopia." Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 35 (1974): 481-493.

Fa, J. E., and A. Purvis. "Body Size, Diet and Population Density in Afrotropical Forest Mammals: A Comparison with Neotropical Species." Journal of Animal Ecology 66 (1997): 98-112.

Feer, F. "Observations écologiques sur le Néotrague de Bates (Neotragus batesi de Winton, 1903, Artiodactyle, Ruminant, Bovidé) du Nord-Est du Gabon." Terre et Vie 33 (1979): 159-239.

Hendrichs, H. "Changes in a Population of Dikdik Madoqua (Rhynchotragus) kirki (Günther 1880)." Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 38 (1975): 55-69.

Hofmann, R. R., and D. R. M. Stewart. "Grazer or Browser: A Classification Based on the Stomach Structure and Feeding Habits of East African Ruminants." Mammalia 36 (1972): 226-240.

Sinclair, A. R. E., S. A. R. Mduma, and P. Arcese. "What Determines Phenology and Synchrony of Ungulate Breeding in Serengeti?" Ecology 81 (2000): 2100-2111.

Tinley, K. L. "Dikdik Madoqua kirki in South West Africa: Notes on Distribution, Ecology and Behaviour." Madoqua 1 (1969): 7-33.

du Toit, J. T. "Feeding-height Stratification among African Browsing Ruminants." African Journal of Ecology 28 (1990): 55-61.

Justin S. Brashares, PhD

Class Mammalia Order Artiodactyla Suborder Ruminantia Family Bovidae Subfamily Cephalophinae

Thumbnail description

Timid small, tropical antelopes; females often larger than the males; coat color is usually reddish brown, but can be gray, black, or striped; most species have a tuft of hair between a pair of horns; maxillary glands used for scent marking; considered browsers; agile jumpers and hiders; reflect the primitive, ancient lifestyle of bovids

Size

Body length 22-59 in (59-145 cm); shoulder height 12-34 in (30-85 cm); 9-176 lb (6-80 kg)

Number of genera, species

2 genera; 18 species

Habitat

Dense forest, lowland or high montane forest, savanna, and open bush; closely tied to dense cover for hiding

Conservation status

Endangered: 1 species; Vulnerable: 3 species; Lower Risk/Near Threatened: 9 species; Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent: 3 species; Lower Risk/Least Concern: 2 species

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