Lacey, Eileen A., James L. Patton, and Guy N. Cameron, eds. Life Underground. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Reig, Osvaldo A., Cristina Busch, Marcelo O. Ortells, and Julio R. Contreras. "An Overview of Evolution, Systematics, Population Biology, Cytogenetics, Molecular Biology and Speciation in Ctenomys." In Evolution of Subterranean Mammals at the Organismal and Molecular Levels, edited by Eviatar Nevo and Osvaldo A. Reig. New York: Wiley, 1990.


Altuna, Carlos A., Gabriel Francescoli, and Graciela Izquierdo. "Copulatory Pattern of Ctenomys pearsoni (Rodentia, Octodontidae) from Balneario Solís, Uruguay." Mammalia 55 (1991): 214.

Altuna, Carlos A., Gabriel Francescoli, Bettina Tassino, and Graciela Izquierdo. "Ecoetología y Conservación de Mamíferos Subterráneos de Distribución Restringida: El Caso de Ctenomys pearsoni (Rodentia, Octodontidae) en el Uruguay." Etología 7 (1999): 47.

Francescoli, Gabriel. "A Preliminary Report on the Acoustic Communication in Uruguayan Ctenomys (Rodentia, Octodontidae): Basic Song Types." Bioacoustics 10 (1999): 203.

Francescoli, Gabriel, and Carlos A. Altuna. "Vibrational Communication in Subterranean Rodents: The Possible Origin of Different Strategies." Evolution of Communication 2 (1998): 217.

Pearson, Oliver P., and Miguel I. Christie. "Los Tuco-tucos (género Ctenomys) de los Parques Nacionales Lanin y Nahuel Huapi, Argentina." Historia Natural 5 (1985): 337.

Zenuto, Roxana R., Aldo I. Vassallo, and Cristina Busch. "A Method for Studying Social and Reproductive Behaviour of Subterranean Rodents in Captivity." Acta Theriologica 46 (2001): 161.


Gabriel Francescoli's Webpage. < .htm>.

Gabriel Francescoli, PhD Graciela Izquierdo, PhD Bettina Tassino, MSc Carlos Altuna, Lic

Class Mammalia Order Rodentia Suborder Hystricognathi Family Octodontidae



Smallest of hystricognath rodents; classic figure-eight pattern on occlusal surface of molar teeth; diverse ecologically and morphologically; specializations for burrowing in many forms

Head and body length 5.0-8.7 in (125-221 mm); tail 1.5-7 in (40-180 mm); 2.8-10.6 oz (80-300 g)

S /

Number of genera, species

8 genera; 12 species

W f

Scrubland, savanna, arid, semiarid, montane, and coastal areas


Vulnerable: 2 species


Southwest Peru, Chile, Argentina, and southwest Bolivia

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