Resources

Books

Geist, V. Mountain Sheep: A Study in Behavior and Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971.

Habibi, K. The Desert Ibex. London: Immel Publishing, 1994.

Heptner, V. G., A. A. Nasimovich, and A. G. Bannikov. Mammals of the Soviet Union. Vol. 1, Ungulates. Moscow: Academy of Sciences, 1961.

Lovari, S., ed. The Biology and Management of Mountain Ungulates. London: Croom Helm, 1985.

Macdonald, D. W., and P. Barrett. Mammals of Britain and Europe. London: Collins, 1993.

Nievergelt, B. Ibexes in an African Environment. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1981.

Roberts, T. J. The Mammals of Pakistan. London: Ernest Benn, 1977.

Schaller, G. B. Mountain Monarchs. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1977.

Shackleton, D. M., ed. Wild Sheep and Goats and Their Relatives. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Caprinae. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1997.

Tener, J. S. Muskoxen in Canada: A Biological and Taxonomic Review. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, 1965.

Periodicals

Fedosenko, A. K., and D. A. Blank. "Capra sibirica." Mammalian Species 675 (2001): 1-13.

Gray, G. G., and C. D. Simpson. "Ammotragus lervia." Mammalian Species 144 (1980): 1-7.

Mallon, D. P. "Status and Conservation of Large Mammals in Ladakh." Biological Conservation 56 (1991): 101-119.

Munton, P. N. "The Ecology of the Arabian Tahr (Hemitragus jayakari Thomas 1894) and a Strategy for the Conservation of the Species." Journal of Oman Studies 8 (1985): 11-48.

Neas, J. F., and R. S. Hoffmann. "Budorcas taxicolor." Mammalian Species 277 (1987): 1-7.

Rideout, C. B., and R. S. Hoffmann. "Oreamnos americanus."

Mammalian Species 63 (1975): 1-6. Schaller, G. B., et al. "Feeding Behavior of Sichuan Takin."

Mammalia 50 (1986): 311-322. Shackleton, D. M. "Ovis canadensis." Mammalian Species 230 (1985): 1-9.

Organizations

IUCN Species Survival Commission, Caprinae Specialist Group, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Chair. Department of Biology, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 Canada. Web site: <http://www.callisto.si.usherb .ca:8080/caprinae/iucnwork.htm>

David P. Mallon, PhD

Class Mammalia Order Pholidota Family Manidae Number of families 1

Thumbnail description

Mostly nocturnal ant- and termite-eating animals with a long and tapered body shape; they possess a unique body cover consisting of enormously overlapping scales that are movable and sharp edged (because of this they are also known as scaly anteaters); they have no teeth in their elongated heads but do have extremely long, protrusible tongues for catching prey

Size

Head and body length 12-35 in (30-90 cm), tail length 10-35 in (26-88 cm), and weight 2-77 lb (1-35 kg)

Number of genera, species

1 genus; 7 species

Habitat

Southern and Southeast Asia, tropical and subtropical parts of Africa

Conservation status

Lower Risk/Near Threatened: 4 species

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