Reproductive biology

All species are polygynous, with males mating with several females, while females tend to mate with only one male per mating season. Single young are most common, although in some species twins are not uncommon. Among the Bovinae, gestation is shortest (7.5-8 months) in chousingha, longest in the water buffalo (10-11 months), and 8-9 months for most other species. Age at first reproduction is generally in the second year (i.e., mate first when 2.5 years old) for the larger species, but occurs during the first year (i.e., mate first when 1.5 years old) for many of the smaller species.

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