The Hippotraginae have colonized all African grassland habitats from permanently inundated swamps to montane grasslands, the dry Sahel region, and the Sahara and Namib deserts.

Oryx species and the addax frequent the most arid areas. Addax are true desert antelopes, while gemsbok occur in grassland, dry steppe, light open woodland, brush savannas, and stony plains, as well as semi-desert and desert. Scimitar-horned oryx favored semi-desert and grassy steppes, while Arabian oryx occupied similar habitat in the Arabian and Sinai peninsulas. The other two members of the Hippotragini, the roan and sable antelopes, inhabit moist grasslands and open woodlands.

The Alcelaphini occupy the fertile grasslands and woodlands of the moist northern and southern savannas. The topi specializes on the grass of valley bottoms and intermediate vegetation zones. Red hartebeest favor the margins of woods, scrub, and grassland, while Lichtenstein's hartebeest prefers mixed open woodland and floodplain grassland. Blesbok, bon-tebok, and black wildebeest occur in South African grasslands, while the blue wildebeest ranges over open grasslands and

Gemsbok (Oryxgazella) live in arid areas of Africa and can survive days without drinking water. (Photo by David M. Maylen III. Reproduced by permission.)
Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) grazing in Etosha National Park, Namibia. (Photo by Animals Animals ┬ęPeter Weimann. Reproduced by permission.)

woodlands of the southern savannas, being particularly common where grass is short after fire or grazing by other species. The impala inhabits the open woodlands in central and southern Africa.

Wetlands and montane grasslands are the home of the Re-duncini. The southern and bohor reedbucks inhabit lowland floodplains and inundated grasslands of the southern and northern savannas, respectively, while the waterbuck lives in savanna and woodland adjacent to wetlands. Lechwe occur at floodplains and seasonally inundated swamps, while the puku and the kob inhabit moist savannas, floodplains, and the margins of adjacent light woodland. The mountain reedbuck and gray rhebok inhabit upland grasslands, the rhebok often in more exposed and rocky situations.

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