The subfamily is mainly distributed in the Northern Hemisphere; in North America from the Arctic south to northern Mexico; across the whole of northern Africa and the highlands of Ethiopia; in all the mountains of Europe and Asia, extending to southern India and Sumatra. Musk ox is now restricted to North America and Greenland, but formerly occurred in northern Siberia and may have survived there until early recent times. In historic times, it also occurred much more widely in North America and in Western Europe. The takin is found in the mountains of western China and the eastern Himalaya, west to Bhutan. Rupi-caprini have a disjunct distribution, with chamois distributed throughout the mountains of central and southern Europe, Turkey and the Caucasus, and gorals and serows are restricted to Asia. Their combined distribution extends from Pakistan to the Russian Far East and the Korean Peninsula. Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and Formosan serow (C. swinhoei) are endemic to Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Oreamnos is found in southeast Alaska and mountains of northwestern Canada and the northwest United States. Serow has an extensive range from the western Himalaya to Gansu and Sichuan provinces in China and through Southeast Asia to Sumatra. Barbary sheep are endemic to northern Africa and once occurred on all ranges and rocky massifs in the Sahara and subdesert zones. Himalayan tahr are distributed in a narrow band along the southern side of the Himalaya from the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to central Nepal. Arabian tahr are endemic to the mountains of southeast Arabia and Nilgiri tahr are restricted to a small range in the southern part of the Western Ghats in India. The distribution of Pseudois is centered on the Tibetan Plateau and bordering ranges. Its range extends in the west to the Karakoram Mountains of northern Pakistan and penetrates to the southern side of the Himalaya in a few places. Dwarf blue sheep have a very limited distribution in river gorges of southwest China. The genus Capra is distributed through the mountains of Europe and Asia, from the Alps to Lake Baikal, and in northeast Africa. Wild goat, the progenitor of domestic goats, is found in Crete and a few other Aegean islands, and through the Caucasus, Turkey, and Iran to Afghanistan and Pakistan. Markhor has a relatively limited distribution in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. Spanish ibex occurs on several ranges in the Iberian Peninsula. West Caucasian tur and east Caucasian tur occupy the west and east of the Caucasus, respectively, with a narrow hybrid zone in the center of the range. Alpine ibex occur throughout the European Alps. Siberian ibex have an extensive distribution through the mountains of Central Asia from the Hindu Kush and Pamirs to the ranges of southern

Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in Bavaria, Germany. (Photo by Animals Animals ┬ęPeter Weimann. Reproduced by permission.)

muskox to Norway. Feral domestic sheep and goats have established populations in several countries and on many islands.

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