Lagomorphs are distributed around the world, as native or introduced species. The pikas once had a broad distribution across most of Eurasia, North America, and into Africa. Currently, however, they are found only in the mountains of the inter-montane west in North America and in Alaska, and across much of Asia primarily in the high mountains of Central Asia, but also south into the northern Middle East and across Russia from the Urals to the East Coast. An isolated population also occurs on Hokkaido in northern Japan.

The leporids currently have a far greater geographic distribution, being found naturally throughout the world with the exception of Australia, New Zealand, and other islands of Oceania, Madagascar, southern South America, and most of Amazonia. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the European hare (Lepus europaeus) have been introduced widely in particular to areas not naturally occupied by rabbits. Thus, Australia, New Zealand, southern South America, and over 500 oceanic islands now are home to these invaders.

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