Flying squirrels are most diverse in south and southeast Asia especially in tropical forest. Fifteen species are island endemics, 11 endemic to Indonesian islands, two to the Philippines, and a further two to Japan. Three species occur in northern temperate regions—the distribution of two of which extends right up to the Arctic Circle, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) and Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans). Northern flying squirrel and southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) are the sole representatives of the group in the New World.

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