Conservation status

The IUCN lists 14 species (Epixerus ebii, E. wilsoni, Fu-nambulus tristriatus, Funisciurus isabella, Paraxerus alexandri, Prosciurillus weberi, Sciurus anomalus, S. arizonensis, S. rich-mondi, S. sanborni, Sundasciurus brookei, S. moellendorffi, S. steerii, and Syntheosciurus brochus) in the Lower Risk category, 14 species as Vulnerable (Callosciurus pygerythrus, C. quinques-triatus, Funisciurus carruthersi, Myosciurus pumilio, Paraxerus cooperi, P. palliatus, P. vexillarius, P. vincenti, Prosciurillus ab-strusus, Ratufa indica, R. macroura, Sundasciurus jentinki, S. ra-bori, and S. samarensis), and one species as Endangered (Sundasciurus juvencus). The European red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, is considered endangered in parts of its range, and the United States Endangered Species Act list two subspecies as endangered. This includes the Mt. Graham red squirrel

(Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) of Arizona and the Del-marva fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus) of the Delmarva Peninsula to southeastern Pennsylvania.

The main causes for species declines are human induced habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation as well as persecution and hunting. However, there is insufficient information on the behavior, ecology, population dynamics, and threats to many Asian, South American, and African species and a need for basic ecological studies to allow adequate conservation assessments.

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