Antilopinae are generally gregarious animals but normally keep a certain distance apart from each other, and under certain circumstances will seek temporary isolation. In most cases, they form groups ranging from two to hundreds (and sometimes even thousands) of individuals. The differences in herd size depend on the environment, population density, season, and species. Herds generally are open, where members come and go freely. Most herds are classified as all-female, all-male (sometimes all-bachelor), or mixed (female/male). Only adult males become territorial, but not all of the adult males become territorial: only those who are successful with the mating of females. They are not territorial throughout their lives, alternating between non-territorial and territorial periods. Own-

Two male gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) fighting. (Photo by Kennneth W. Fink. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Mother and newborn springboks (Antidorcas marsupialis). (Photo by Jen & Des Bartlett. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

The mhorr gazelle (Gazella dama mhorr) is Endangered. (Photo by Animals Animals ©Michael Dick. Reproduced by permission.)

Pronking springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) in Kalahari Gemsbok Park. Photo by Animals Animals ©J & B Photographers. Reproduced by permission.)

Gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) have pre-orbital glands in front of the eyes that emit a tarlike, scent-bearing substance they deposit on branches and bushes to mark their territory. (Photo by David M. Maylen III. Reproduced by permission.)

Springboks (Antidorcas marsupialis) battle in Kalahari Gemsbok Park. (Photo by Animals Animals ©J & B Photographers. Reproduced by permission.)

secretions from the preorbital gland and with urine and feces. Females will periodically visit the males in their territories.

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