Physical characteristics

Sengis can charm the viewer with their rather humorous and endearing appearance and behavior. The sight of a sengi calls to mind a mouse with long, spindly legs and a mobile, slightly downturned snout varying in length among species. The long legs enable a sengi to walk, trot, run, or hop like a large, long-legged mammal, rather than with the scampering motions common among other small mammals. The body is compact, the head large in proportion. The coat is soft and full. The eyes are large,...

Thinspined porcupine

Hystrix subspinosa (Olfers, 1818), Cameta, Para, Brazil. Formerly classed with the Neotropical porcupines (Erythrozonti-dae), but now recognized as an echimyid and as a remarkable example of parallel evolution. Characteristics that led to this reassessment included the retention of deciduous premolars throughout life and the lack of an internal carotid artery. Rabbit-sized and weighing some 2.87 lb (1.3 kg), C. semi-spinosus has its back covered with long thin bristles. On the head, neck, and...

Flower Delivery

Mammalian Reproductive Biology. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1989. Eisenberg, J. F. The Mammalian Radiations An Analysis of Trends in Evolution, Adaptation, and Behavior. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1981. Lacey, E. A. Spatial and Social Systems of Subterranean Rodents. In Life Underground The Biology of Subterranean Rodents, edited by Eileen A. Lacey, James L. Patton, and Guy N. Cameron. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 2000. Macdonald, D. The New...

Oribi

Antilope ourebi (Zimmermann, 1783), Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Thirteen proposed subspecies. French Ourebie German Bleichbockchen Spanish Oribi. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Slender, small antelope males have distinctively large glands beneath the eyes. Length 37-44 in (93-111 cm) height 24-27 in (60-69 cm) weight 33-46 lb (15-21 kg). Pelage sandy to rufous with white undersides, throat, chin, mouth, eyebrows, and ear linings. Eyes large and black. Tail often darker than body with white...

Lagomorpha

Class Mammalia Order Lagomorpha Number of families 2 Number of genera, species 12 genera 91 species Photo A snowshoe rabbit (Lepus americanus) in its summer coat. (Phoyo by Rolf Kopfle. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Class Mammalia Order Lagomorpha Number of families 2 Number of genera, species 12 genera 91 species Photo A snowshoe rabbit (Lepus americanus) in its summer coat. (Phoyo by Rolf Kopfle. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Behavior

Agoutis are ground living and day active, unless heavily hunted. Their home range will often include several sleeping spots, often inside fallen hollow logs or under tree roots. These spots are so well used that well-beaten paths will radiate out from them into the forest, linking favored foraging and resting sites. A favorite food of jaguar and other large forest carnivores, agoutis and acouchis have many behaviors aimed at predator avoidance. They will freeze in mid-stride if threatened. If...

Turkestan red pika

Ochotona rutila (Severtzov, 1873), Kazakhstan. No subspecies. Known primarily for its rich rust-reddish dorsal pelage in summer. Size and weight not available. Primarily found in the Parmir, Kirgiz, Gissar, and Tien Shan mountains of central Asia. A typical rock-dwelling pika in the central Asian mountains. BEHAVIOR It is unusual among rock-dwelling pikas by having a significantly larger territory on which it forages, and its tendency for juveniles to over-winter on the territory with their...

Resources

The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region A Systematic Review. Oxford and New York Oxford University Press, 1992. Forsyth, A. Mammals of North America Temperate and Arctic Regions. Willowdale, Canada Firefly Books Ltd., 1999. Gurnell, J. The Natural History of Squirrels. London Christopher Helm, 1987. Nowak, R. M. Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th ed. Baltimore and London Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds. Mammal Species of...

Reproductive biology

All species are polygynous, with males mating with several females, while females tend to mate with only one male per mating season. Single young are most common, although in some species twins are not uncommon. Among the Bovinae, gestation is shortest (7.5-8 months) in chousingha, longest in the water buffalo (10-11 months), and 8-9 months for most other species. Age at first reproduction is generally in the second year (i.e., mate first when 2.5 years old) for the larger species, but occurs...

Prehensiletailed porcupines

Coendou prehensilis (Linnaeus, 1758), Pernambuco, Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Cuandu German Greifstachler, Cuandu Spanish Coend grande, puerco-esp n. An adult can range from about 3 to 4 ft (0.9-1.2 m) in length with half of that total in the tail, and about 9-12 lb (4-5.5 kg) in weight. Grayish to yellowish brown, mainly short-spined porcupine with a typically whitish face and small, black, and long, prehensile tail. The last third of the tail is unspined on its upper surface, providing...

Mountain paca

Agouti taczanowskii (Stolzmann, 1865), Andean Ecuador. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Pace de Montagne German Berkpaka Spanish Guagua negra, tinajo, sachacuy, picure de montana, lapa andina. Smaller than the lowland A. paca, with reddish brown fur that is shorter, denser, and softer. There is a dense undercoat for insulation. Combined this gives the impression of a thicker, woollier animal with fluffier fur. The face is less broad, with a longer snout, smaller eyes and thinner claws. There is some...

Largeeared pika

Ochotona macrotis (G nther, 1875), Tibet, China. Four subspecies. Body length 5.9-7.9 in (15-20 cm). A generalized ochotonid, but with large thin ears. Brown coat with gray undercoat. High mountains of central Asia has been recorded as high as 20,100 ft (6,130 m). A typical rock-dwelling pika it lives in high mountains. A generalized herbivore, some do not cache vegetation in haypiles, a characteristic of most pika species it is felt that the lack of snow in parts of their range allowing for...

Info

Chilean tree mouse (Irenomys tarsalis) 2. Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) 3. Water mouse (Chibchanomys orcesi) 4. Marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) 5. Rio de Janeiro rice rat (Phaenomys ferrugineus) 6. Kemp's grass mouse (Deltamys kempi) 7. Andean mouse (Andino-mys edax) 8. Brazilian shrew mouse (Blarinomys breviceps). (Illustration by Barbara Duperron)

How to use this book

Gzimek,s Animal Life Encyclopedia is an internationally prominent scientific reference compilation, first published in German in the late 1960s, under the editorship of zoologist Bernhard Grzimek (1909-1987). In a cooperative effort between Gale and the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, the series is being completely revised and updated for the first time in over 30 years. Gale is expanding the series from 13 to 17 volumes, commissioning new color images, and updating the information while...

Habitat

Sigmodontines occupy almost all ecosystems found through their distributional range, including dry deserts, wet tropical forests, wetlands, savannas, steppes, temperate woodlands, high altitude grasslands, salt flats, and scrublands. Some species, such as Nectomys squamipes, are semiaquatic inhabitants of forests, and others, like Scapteromys tumidus, are semi-aquatic inhabitants of grasslands. Notiomys edwardsii and Kunsia tomentosus are largely fossorial species that live in arid steppes and...

Feeding ecology and diet

Bovinae include grazers, grazer-browsers (mixed feeders), and browsers. Some such as the bushbuck (Tragelaphus scrip-tus) also eat fruits and seed pods. Tragelaphines are primarily browsers feeding on twigs, leaves, fruits, and new shoots of woody species as well as forbs and sometimes grasses, especially when the latter are newly growing. Larger species such as members of Bos and Bison rely more heavily on grasses and forbs but will browse when fresh young growth of shrubs is available. In the...

Distribution

Mountain beavers inhabit forestlands along the Pacific Coast of North America, from sea level to as high as 7,000 ft (2,000 m) in subalpine forests. They range south from 50 N in southwestern British Columbia through western Washington and Oregon to northern California where inland they extend further south to 36 40'N along the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Two disjunct populations occur on the coast of California north of San Francisco Bay. Mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa). (Illustration by Brian...

Conservation status

A total of 22 species are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, listed as Endangered is the linh duong (Pseudonovibos spiralis) this species' existence is questionable as it is suspected of being a hoax. The listings for this subfamily are Critically Endangered 2 species Endangered 7 species Vulnerable 3 species Lower Risk 10 species. Excluding the linh duong, 11 of the accepted 21 species, or 52 , are listed in categories of conservation concern. Most threats to Bovinae...

Color graphics enhance understanding

Grzimek,s features approximately 3,000 color photos, including approximately 1,560 in five Mammals volumes 3,500 total color maps, including nearly 550 in the Mammals volumes and approximately 5,500 total color illustrations, including approximately 930 in the Mammals volumes. Each featured species of animal is accompanied by both a distribution map and an illustration. All maps in Grzimek,s were created specifically for the project by XNR Productions. Distribution information was provided by...

Bay duiker

Cephalophus dorsalis Gray, 1846, Sierra Leone. Two subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Black-striped duiker French Cephalophe a bande dorsale noire, cephalophe bai German Schwarzruckenducker. Medium to large duiker length 28-40 in (70-100 cm) height 16-22 in (40-55 cm) weight 33-44 lb (15-20 kg). Has reddish brown coat, with blue or brown-gray legs and black dorsal stripe white underside white lips and lower chin. Smooth, short horns. Large maxillary glands. Guinea-Bissau to the Democratic...

Australian jumping mouse

Notomys alexis (Thomas, 1922), Northern Territory, Australia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Australian hopping mouse, jerboa mouse French Souris sauteuses d'Australie German Australische H pfm use Spanish Rat n saltador. Body length 3.9-5.9 in (10-15 cm) tail 3.5-8.2 in (9-21 cm) weight 0.7-1.7 oz (20-50 g). Their upper coloring is light sandy brown to gray. Their bellies are white to light gray. They have long tails and large ears, but their distinguishing feature is the narrow, large hind feet...

Artiodactyla [Order

B. babyrussa Species Phacochoerus Genus P. aethiopicus Species P. africanus Hylochoerus Genus H. meinertzhageni Species Potamochoerus Genus P. larvatus Species P. porcus Sus Genus S. barbatus Species S. bucculentus S. cebifrons S. celebensis S. heureni S. philippensis S. salvanius S. scrofa S. timoriensis S. verrucosus Tayassuidae Family Catagonus Genus C. wagneri Species Pecari Genus P. tajacu Species Tayassu Genus T. pecari Species Hippopotamidae Family Hexaprotodon Genus H. liberiensis...

Amazon bamboo rat

Echimys dactylinus (Desmarest, 1817), upper Amazon. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Singing rat Spanish Cocopitzu (Ecuador), pacamama (Peru). The head and body are 11.8 in (30 cm), with a tail measuring approximately 15.7 in (40 cm). Weight is 1.3-1.7 lb (600-750 g). Stocky in appearance with square muzzle. Head is grayish beige with darker stripe between ear and eye. Back and flanks are grayish with a rusty wash, grading to pure rusty orange on base of tail and thighs. Underfur is black, and belly,...

Kirks dikdik

Neotragus kirkii (G nther, 1880), Brava, Somalia. Seven proposed subspecies. English Damaraland dikdik French Dik-dik de Kirk German Kirkdikdik Spanish Dik-dik de Kirk. Small, very slender antelope with distinctive soft, elongated nose. Length 22.5-29.5 in (57-75 cm) height 14-18 in (35-45 cm) weight 6-14 lb (2.7-6.5 kg). Fur on back is grizzled gray with black and white flecks, face and legs are tan, and the chin, belly, and underside of small tail are white to off-white. Crest of fur on head...

Nile lechwe

Antilope megaceros (Fitzinger, 1855), Sobat River, Bahr-el-Ghazal, Sudan. Monotypic. English Mrs. Gray's lechwe French Cobe leche du Nil German Nile litschi Spanish Lechwe de Nilo. Body length 4.5-5.5 ft (135-165 cm) shoulder height 2.6-3.5 ft (80-105 cm) tail 18-20 in (45-50 cm) 132-264 lb (60-120 kg) horns 18-35 in (45-87 cm) long. Males have chocolate brown coat with white shoulder patches females' coat is uniformly rufous in color. Most wild populations occur in the Sudd ecosystem of...

Steppe lemming

Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773), Kazakhstan. Head and body length 3.5-5.5 in (9-14 cm) weight 0.5-1 oz (10-25 g). Upperparts light gray to cinnamon gray, underparts whitish. Black stripe along spine. Central Asian steppes from the Ukraine to China. HABITAT Open grassland steppe, semi-deserts, and cultivated fields. Mainly nocturnal, but occasionally diurnal also. It lives in burrow systems that can join up to cover large areas. Populations fluctuate and they can be exceedingly numerous in some...

Steppe pika

Ochotona pusilla (Pallas, 1769), Orenburgsk Obl, Russia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Little pika. Body length is 5.9 in (15 cm). Color is darker grayish brown above, lighter below. A small generalized ochotonid. Found from the Ural Mountains east across southern Russia and northern Kazakhstan. Occupies flat meadow and steppe country where it utilizes burrows. The ecology and behavior of the steppe pika closely resemble that of the plateau pika. The steppe pika is the only truly nocturnal pika....

Southern bamboo rat

Dactylomys amblyonyx (Wagner, 1845), Sao Paulo, Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Bambus-Fingerratte Spanish Rata de las Taquaras (Argentina). An individual Kannbaetomys amblyonyx weighs up to 1.3 lb (600 g), and its back, flanks, and head are a dull orangey-buff, while its under parts are off-white. Fur is thick and soft, lacking bristles, and the tail is thickly haired. The third and fourth digits are greatly elongated and expanded to provide a wide, strong grip when climbing thick round...

Armored rat

Echimys gymnurus (Thomas, 1897), Cachavi, Esmereldas Province, Ecuador. English Thick-spined rat German Lanzenratte Spanish Rata espinosa. Head and body length 8.6-12.5 in (22-32 cm) tail 5.9-9.8 in (15-25 cm) weight 7.7 oz to 1.7 lb (218-815 g). Males are considerably bigger (up to 38 ) than females. This terrestrial rodent has very thick and well developed spines, especially on its back where they are up to 1.1 in (3 cm) long and 0.08 in (2 mm) in diameter. Spines on the back are white at the...

Indian pangolin

Manis crassicaudata Gray, 1827, India. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Thick-tailed pangolin French Grand pangolin de l'inde Spanish Pangolin indio. Indian pangolins have a head and body length of 2.0-2.2 ft (60-65 cm), a tail length of 1.5-1.8 ft (45-55 cm), and a weight of 17.6-19.8 lb (8-9 kg). Male Indian pangolins may be as much as 90 heavier than females. They have large, pale yellowish brown or yellow-gray scales, with brownish skin and hair with about 14-16 rows of scales on the tail. Scales...

Significance to humans

The Cephalophinae represent an essential source of protein and income throughout the forest regions of Central and West Africa. There is ample evidence that the current levels of hunting are unsustainable. In addition, the dwarf duikers are prized by trophy hunters, who seek to add full body mounts of the smaller animals to their collections. 1. Ogilby's duiker (Cephalophus ogilbyi) 2. Black duiker (Cephalophus niger) S. Bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis) 4. Yellow-backed duiker (Cephalophus...

Chousingha

Tetracerus quadricornis (de Blainville, 1816), India. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Four-horned antelope French Tetracere German Vierhornantiope. Body length 31.4-43.3 in (80-110 cm) shoulder height 21.6-25.5 in (55-65 cm) tail length 3.9-5.9 in (10-15 cm) weight 33-55 lb (15-25 kg). Unique among Bovinae because the males have two pairs of horns longer pair is 1.9-4.7 in (5-12 cm), smooth, and black, positioned at the top of the head just anterior to the ears second pair is much smaller, between...

Siberian ibex

Capra sibirica (Pallas, 1776), Sayan Mountains, Siberia, Russia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Asiatic ibex French Bouquetin d'Asie German Sibirischer steinbock Spanish Sakin altai. The largest and heaviest member of the genus, with the longest horns. Head and body length 67 in (171 cm), height 43 in (110 cm), and weight 286 lb (130 kg). Horns are scimitarlike, swept back and laterally compressed, with prominent transverse ridges on the front surface and reach 60 in (148 cm). Horns of females are...

Beavers

North America, Asia, and Europe except desert and tundra regions North America, Asia, and Europe except desert and tundra regions The Rodentia is a monophyletic mammalian order. Molecular evidence suggests a close association of Castoridae to the Geomyidae (pocket mice and pocket gophers). The two beaver species differ by eight chromosomes of Castor (40 for the North American and 48 for the Eurasian beaver). The genus Castor dates to the early Pliocene late Miocene boundary, separating from...

Roundeared sengi

Macroscelides proboscideus (Shaw, 1800), Roodeval, Oudtshoorn Division, Cape Province, South Africa. English Short-eared sengi, jumping shrew French Macroscelide d'Afrique du sud, rat trompe d'Afrique du sud German Kurzohr-r sselspringer Afrikaans Ronde-oorklaasneus. The round-eared sengi is among the smallest of the living sengi species. The adult head and body length runs 3.5-4.5 in (95-115 mm), the long tail adding another 4-5.5 in (97-135 mm). Adult weight is 1-2 oz (30-50 g). The body fur...

Rufous sengi

Elephantulus rufescens (Peters, 1878), Ndi, Taita, Kenya. OTHER COMMON NAMES English East African long-nosed sengi French Rat a trompe rouge German Rotbraune Elefantenspitzmaus. Adult rufous sengis weigh 1.5-3.5 oz (41-98 g). The head and body length runs 8-11.5 in (202-290 mm), the tail about the same length. The fur is long and soft, the upper coat colored sandy brown, light gray or light orange, while the underparts are white or grayish. A patchwork of white spots and black streaks on the...

North African sengi

Elephantulus rozeti (Duvernoy, 1833), near Oran, Algeria. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Macrosc lide de l'Afrique du nord German Nordafrikanische Elefantenspitzmaus Spanish Musara a elefante norteafricana. The adult head and body length averages about 5 in (125 mm), tail length is about the same, and adult weight is around 1.5 oz (45 g). The fur is soft and often closely and remarkably simulates the local color of the soil, usually some shade of yellowish brown. North African sengis live in...

Blacktailed prairie dog

Arctomys ludoviciana (Ord, 1815), Upper Missouri River. Seven subspecies. French Chien de prairie, cynomys social German Schwarz-schwanz-Prariehund Spanish Perrito de la pradera. 14.0-15.7 in (35.5-39.8 cm) males 26.5-31.9 oz (750-905 g), females 24.3-28.9 oz (689-819 g). Brown or reddish brown, whitish below. In Canada, restricted to southern Saskatchewan. In the United States, exists from Montana east to eastern Nebraska and as far south as Mexico extirpated from Arizona. Prefers open, flat,...

Silvery mountain vole

Alticola argentatus Severtzov, 1879, Kazakhstan. Nine subspecies are recognized the taxonomic status of several is unclear. Central Asia in the Tien Shan mountains. HABITAT Alpine scree slopes and other rocky areas. Both nocturnal and diurnal. It builds large nests among rocks and is also active underneath snow cover during the winter. Foliage, stems, seeds, and roots. They construct food stores of cut plants that they dry in the sun before caching for the winter months. Produces 2-3 litters of...

Mzab gundi

Ctenodactylus mzabi (Lataste, 1881), Ghardaia, northern Algeria. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Lataste's gundi French Goundi du Sahara German Langhaargundi. Head and body 6.7-9.5 in (17-24 cm) tail 1.4 in (3.5 cm) captive males averaged 6.05 oz (172 g), females 6.85 oz (194 g). Various shades of yellow, brown or buff ears round and flat tail bushy. Central Sahara Desert in Algeria, northern Niger, northwestern Chad, northeastern Mali, and southwestern Libya. Rock outcrops and mountains in desert...

African brushtailed porcupine

Atherura africana Gray, 1842, Sierra Leone. English West African brush-tailed porcupine. Slender, rat-like creature, with distinctive long tail (that is easily broken off), tipped with a tuft of bristles. (Similar features to Atherurus macrourus.) Weight is 2.2-8.8 lb (1-4 kg), head and body length is 14.4-23.6 in (36.5-60.0) cm, and tail length is 3.9-10.2 in (10-26 cm). Body is long and slender, but legs are wide and short. Body color varies from black to dark grayish brown on upper side and...

Aurochs

Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758, Poloniaelig (or Uppsala, Sweden, according to Thomas). English Wild cattle, wild ox French Aurochs German Ur. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Body length 118 in (300 cm) shoulder height 68.8-72.8 in (175-185 cm) tail length 55 in (140 cm) weight 1,763-2,204 lb (800-1,000 kg). Sexual dimorphism is moderate, with females 20 smaller than males males had horns, up to 31.5 in (80 cm), that extended sideways and then turned upwards and forwards. Females had notably smaller horns....

Brazilian shrew mouse

Blarinomys breviceps (Winge, 1887), Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Tribe Akodontini. OTHER COMMON NAMES Portuguese Rato do Mato. Total length 5.1-6.3 in (129-161 mm), tail length 1.2-2.0 in (30-52 mm), hindfoot length 0.6-0.8 in (16-21 mm), ear length 0.3-0.4 in (8-10 mm). Shrewlike superficially resembles the North American insectivore genus Blarina, and hence its scientific generic name. Pelage is dark gray. Head is short and conical. Eyes extremely reduced. Claws well developed....

Klipspringer

Antilope oreotragus (Zimmermann, 1783), Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Eleven proposed subspecies. French Oreotrague German Klippspringer. Small, compact antelope with rounded hindquarters and blunt muzzle. Walks on tips of extended hooves. Length 32-39 in (82-100 cm) height 18-24 in (45-60 cm) weight 20-35 lb (9-16 kg). Fur is coarse, hollow, and tawny to gray in appearance. Underside and ear linings light gray to white. Horns straight and annulated in males, up to 6 in (15 cm) in length,...

Yellowbacked duiker

Cephalophus silvicultor (Afzelius, 1815), Sierra Leone and the Pongas and Quia Rivers of Guinea. Two subspecies. French C phalophe a dos jaune German Gelbr ckenducker, Riesenducker. Largest of the duikers length 46-58 in (115-145 cm) height 25-34 in (65-85 cm) weight 99-176 lb (45-80 kg). Dark brown to black coat with white or orange short tufts of hair along the back gray muzzle and white lips, and maxillary glands. Ridged, wedge-shaped horns grow on both males and females. Senegal to...

Indian crested porcupine

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Indian porcupine, long-tailed porcupine. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Subgenus Hystrix is distinguished externally from other genera by relatively larger size, shorter tail and presence of rattle quills. Head and body length is 27.6-35.4 in (70-90 cm) in length and tail length 3.2-3.9 in (8-10 cm). Weight is 24.3-39.7 lb (11-18 kg). Short, high head has long, spiny head-neck mane whose length can be up to 16 in (40 cm). Hair is modified...

Rio de Janeiro rice rat

Phaenomys ferrugineus (Thomas, 1984), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Formerly placed in the Thomasomyine tribe. OTHER COMMON NAMES Portuguese Rato do mato ferrugineo. Measurements of the holotype total length 13.2 in (335 mm), tail length 7.4 in (187 mm), hindfoot length 1.3 in (34 mm), ear length 0.7 in (17 mm). Pelage is dorsally rust-colored, cheeks and sides are lighter, and the underparts are whitish. Ears are small and well furred. The tail is unicolored, dark gray. Known only from three...

Harriss antelope squirrel

Spermophilus harrisii Audubon and Bachman, 1854, Santa Cruz county, Arizona, United States. Two subspecies. English Yuma antelope squirrel German Harris-Antilopen Zeisel. 9.0-9.7 in (22.9-24.6 cm), 4.3-5.3 oz (122-150 g). Brown to dark gray in winter, lighter in summer. White stripe along each side. No white under tail unlike the other Ammospermophilus sp. Southern Arizona, extreme southwest New Mexico, and northwest Mexico. Various open and sparsely vegetated desert habitats. Habitats include...

Dorcas gazelle

Capra dorcas (Linnaeus, 1758), lower Egypt. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Gazelle dorcas. Dorcas gazelles have a head and body length of 3.0-3.6 ft (90-110 cm), tail length of 6-8 in (l5-20 cm), shoulder height of 1.8-2.1 ft (55-65 cm), and weight of 27-44 lb (12-20 kg). They are considered one of the smallest of the gazelles, but proportionately are the longest limbed. Their slender limbs contain splayed hooves. They can reach running speeds of 60 mph (95 kph) and can maintain steady speeds of 30...

Spiny rat

Echimys semispinosus (Tomes, 1860), Esmeraldas, Ecuador. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Igelratten Spanish Sacha cui (Peru) Surinamese Maka alata. The size of a house rat or white lab rat, but with a proportionately larger head and smaller ears. Fur (especially on the back and rump) is bristly to the touch due to the presence of stiffened, flattened hairs. Above is an orangish brown, and below is pure white. The tail is naked and is often pale toward the end. A weakness in the fifth vertebra of the...

Hane Sengi Sexe Photoj

Sengis are alert, high-strung creatures with hair-trigger senses and reactions, always primed for escape, fleeing into hiding at the least threat. The enemies of sengis are legion. Snakes, birds of prey, and carnivorous mammals are known predators of sengis. Accordingly, the sengi lifestyle balances the vulnerability of small size, short life-span and low reproductive rate with keen senses, lightning-swift reflexes, and alterations that the sengi makes in its territory to ensure maximum safety....

Whitefaced arboreal spiny rat

Myoxus chrysurus (Zimmerman, 1780), Suriname. OTHER COMMON NAMES Portuguese Conoco, sauia banderira. Fur is bristly and spiny, with the upper parts brownish red, while the belly and throat are buff colored. A broad white blaze runs from the nose to behind the ears. The last three-quarters of the tail is white with a yellowish tip. Paws are white. In dense vegetation along riverbanks and in flooded areas. Uses upper stories of vegetation. The same size as a familiar European North American...

Insectvora [Order

Erinaceidae Family Atelerix Genus A. albiventris Species A. algirus A. frontalis A. sclateri Erinaceus Genus E. amurensis Species E. concolor E. europaeus Hemiechinus Genus H. aethiopicus Species H. auritus H. collaris H. hypomelas H. micropus H. nudiventris Mesechinus Genus M. dauuricus Species M. hughi Echinosorex Genus E. gymnura Species Hylomys Genus H. hainanensis Species H. sinensis H. suillus Podogymnura Genus P. aureospinula Species P. truei Chrysochloridae Family Amblysomus Genus A....

Javan shorttailed porcupine

Kangaroo Sexual Anatomy

Cuvier, 1823 , Java, Indonesia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Sunda porcupine, Malaysian short-tailed porcupine. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The weight averages about 17.6 lb 8 kg , head and body length is 17.9-28.9 in 45.5-73.5 cm , and the tail length is 2.4-5.1 in 6.0-13.0 cm . Quill arrangement and structure resemble subgenus Thecurus. Java, Lombok, Madura, Sumbawa, Flores and nearby island of Tanah Djampa, Rintja, and southwestern Sulawesi presumably only through human...

Bushy Tailed Cave

Big Pack Rat

The order Rodentia has a worldwide distribution, and species within this order can be found in every habitat ranging from Arctic tundra to desert. Nearly 70 of all rodent species are rats and mice of the family Muridae, and representatives of this family are found on all continents as well as Australia and oceanic islands. The house mouse Mus mus-culus and the black rat Rattus rattus , two species that live in close association with humans, are cosmopolitan and have been transported to all...

Ground pangolin

Manis temminckii Smuts, 1832, northern Cape Province, South Africa. English Cape pangolin, South African pangolin, Temminck's ground pangolin, scaly anteater French Pangolin de Tem-minck Spanish Pangolin del cabo. Ground pangolins have a head and body length of 20-24 in 50-60 cm , a tail length of 14-20 in 35-50 cm , and a weight of 33.0-39.6 lb 15-18 kg . Ground pangolins are similar in most respect to Chinese pangolins. They do not have external ears, have scales on the tail but do not have...

Eastern rock sengi

Elephantulus myurus Thomas and Schwann, 1906, Woodbush, Transvaal, South Africa. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Langschwanz-R sselspringer. The head and body length range 8-11.5 in 202-290 mm , the tail slightly longer. Adult body weight runs 1.5-3 oz 41-98 g . Eastern rock sengis may hop with the hindlimbs, but most of the time they walk or run about on all fours. There are five digits on each foot with small claws, while the digits of the hind feet, are equipped with digital pads to give them...

Evolution and systematics

The earliest known fossil of the Pedetidae was recorded from the early Miocene at Elizabethfeld in Namibia as Para-pedetes namaquensis while a larger form of the modern spring-hare Megapedetes appeared later in the Miocene in East Africa. The fossil record may be traced via the early Pliocene site at Taung P. gracilis in the northwestern Cape Province of South Africa where notable australopithecine remains were discovered to Pleistocene deposits in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe as Pedetes capensis ....

Pallass squirrel

Callosciurus erythraeus Pallas, 1779 , Assam, India. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Red-bellied squirrel French Ecureuil a ventre rouge Spanish Ardilla de Pallas. Head and body length 7.8-10.2 in 200-260 mm , tail 6-7.6 in 160-195 mm 11-16 oz 310-460 g . Very variable in color, Upper fur olive brown agouti, underside reddish varying from maroon to creamy buff . From Bhutan and Assam in the east through Myanman to southern China, south to Indochina, Thailand, and Malaya. Also occurs on Taiwan,...

Lord Derbys anomalure

Pteromys derbianus Gray, 1842 , Sierra Leone. One of the subspecies of A. derbianus in the Congo, is occasionally given species rank as A. fraseri. Sixteen subspecies. English Lord Derby's scalytail French Ecureuil volant de Derby German Gemeines Dornschanz-hornchen. Physical characteristics vary geographically over its range, with the dorsal fur varying from gray to rich russet grizzled with silver. The subspecies, though all share the characteristic facial pattern of white snout, forehead,...

Species accounts

Wetland Keystone Species

OTHER COMMON NAMES English European beaver. Weight 33-75 lb 15-35 kg . Yellowish brown to black fur and a flat tail. Has longer nasal bones, larger and more massive skull and smaller tail than the North American beaver. The anal gland secretion is a thick paste of a grayish color in females but oily with a whitish or pale straw color in males. It is brown and viscous in male but it is whitish or light yellow and runny in female North American beavers....

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Longtailed chinchilla

Chinchilla lanigera Molina, 1782 , Coquimbo, Coquimbo Province, Chile. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Chinchilla laniger. Average total length of 14.4 in 365 mm , tail length 5.6 in 141 mm , and weight 0.9 lb 0.4 kg . Appearance is rabbit-like with larger ears than C. brevicaudata and a longer brushy tail. Dorsal fur is gray and black. Tympanic bullae are inflated. Arid to semi-arid, montane regions between 9,840-16,400 ft 3,000-5,000 m . Prefers rocky habitats with sparse vegetation. Either...

Pocket gophers

Southeastern Pocket Gophers

Class Mammalia Order Rodentia Suborder Sciurognathi Family Geomyidae Small- to medium-sized herbivores, characterized by a tube-shaped body, small eyes and ears, short tail, short but stout forelimbs, and small hindlimbs 5-14 in 13-36 cm 0.13-3.1 lb 60-1,400 g Meadows, prairies, woodlands, and deserts Conservation status Critically Endangered 2 species Endangered 1 species Vulnerable 2 species Lower Risk Near Threatened 10 species North, central, and northwestern North America North, central,...

Pocket mice kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice

Dark Kangaroo Mouse Picture

Class Mammalia Order Rodentia Suborder Sciurograthi Family Heteromyidae Small to medium nocturnal, seed-eating rodents with external, fur-lined cheek pouches, bipedal locomotion in the kangaroo rats and mice and quadrupedal locomotion in pocket mice. Rudimentary social structure sandbathing cleans the hair and deposits scent for communication the medium and larger sized kangaroo rats communicate by footdrumming 1.7-14.6 in 42-370 mm total length, weight 0.2-6.9 oz 5-195 g Number of genera,...

Ra

Field Station of the Federal Fisheries S Research Institute O Dr. Konrad Lorenz Professor and Director, Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology Seewiesen Obb., Germany Sciences, Institute for Systematic and O Experimental Zoology N Cracow, Poland Dr. Walburga Moeller Nature Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. Martin L hmann Federal Research Institute for the Breeding of Small Animals Celle, Germany Dr. Johannes L ttschwager Oberstudienrat retired Heidelberg, Germany Dr. Wolfgang Makatsch...

Roatan Island agouti

Roatan Mammals

Dasyprocta ruatanica Thomas, 1901, Roatan Island, 40 mi 64 km off the coast of northern Honduras. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Agouti de l'lle de Ruatan. Head and body length, 12.6-25.2 in 32-64 cm tail, 0.4-2.75 in 1-7 cm weight, 1.3-8.8 lb 0.6-4 kg . A classic case of island dwarfism. This species is like a small Dasyprocta punctata, the ancestral mainland species from which it is thought to be descended. The body appears brown with each hair having alternating black and yellow rings....

Birch mice jumping mice and jerboas

Sicista Armenica

Class Mammalia Order Rodentia Suborder Sciurognathi Family Dipodidae Pygmy to medium-sized quadrupedal or bipedal rodents with hind limbs slightly or much longer than forelimbs long tails and eyes and external ears ranging in size coarse or soft brown, brownish-yellow or jonquil fur a dichromatic, black-and-white banner tail tip characteristic of many jerboa species specialized for the fast bipedal gallop 1.8-9 in 45-230 mm weight 0.2-15 oz 6-415 g Inhabitants of forests, meadows, steppe and...

Blesbok Bontebok

Antilope pygargus Pallas, 1767 , Cape Province, South Africa. Two subspecies. French Blesbok bontebok, Damalisque a front blanc German Blessbok, Buntbok Spanish Blesbok. Body length 4.6-5.3 ft 140-160 cm shoulder height 2.8-3.3 ft 85-100 cm tail 12-18 in 30-45 cm 121-220 lb 55-100 kg . Horns 14-20 in 35-50 cm . Dark brown coat, white belly and inside legs. White face patch, ears. D. p. phillipsi east-central South Africa D. p. dorcas small area of southwestern Cape. Grasslands of the highveld...

Pels anomalure

Pteromys Anomalurus pelii Schlegel and Muller, 1845 , Dubacrom, Ghana. English Pel's scaletail French Ecureuil volant de Pel German Pel Dornschwanz-hornchen. The largest anomalure, Pel's all-black back and pure white belly are quite distinctive. The fur on the head is black, and the snout and fur at the bases of the ears is white. The tail is white and as long as the head and body, with a thickened brush of fur on the last half. The gliding membranes are black in some subspecies and white in...

Sable antelope

Aigocerus niger Harris, 1838 , near Pretoria, South Africa. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Hippotrague noir German Rappenantilope Spanish Antilope sable. Body length 6.3-8.5 ft 190-255 cm shoulder height 3.9-4.7 ft 117-143 cm tail 1.3-2.5 ft 40-75 cm 420-660 lb 190-300 kg , female smaller than male. Horns 2.6-5.5 ft 80-165 cm in males, 2-3.3 ft 60-100 cm in females. H. n. roosevelti extreme southeastern Kenya through Tanzania H. n. kirkii Zambia, presumably eastern Angola and southeastern Democratic...