Volume 14 Mammals III

Devra G. Kleiman, Advisory Editor

Valerius Geist, Advisory Editor Melissa C. McDade, Project Editor

Joseph E. Trumpey, Chief Scientific Illustrator

Michael Hutchins, Series Editor

In association with the American Zoo and Aquarium Association



Detroit • New York • San Diego • San Francisco • Cleveland • New Haven, Conn. • Waterville, Maine • London • Munich



Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Second Edition

Volume 14: Mammals III

Project Editor

Melissa C. McDade


Stacey Blachford, Deirdre S. Blanchfield, Madeline Harris, Christine Jeryan, Kate Kretschmann, Mark Springer, Ryan Thomason

Indexing Services

Synapse, the Knowledge Link Corporation


Margaret Chamberlain

Imaging and Multimedia

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Product Design

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© 2004 by Gale. Gale is an imprint of The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning Inc.

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Cover photo of Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) by Jeff Lepore/Photo Researchers, Inc. Back cover photos of sea anemone by AP/Wide World Photos/University of Wisconsin-Superior; land snail, lionfish, golden frog, and green python by JLM Visuals; red-legged locust © 2001 Susan Sam; hornbill by Margaret F. Kinnaird; and tiger by Jeff Lepore/Photo Researchers. All reproduced by permission.

While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, The Gale Group, Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. The Gale Group, Inc. accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors and publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. ISBN 0-7876-5362-4 (vols. 1-17 set) 0-7876-6573-8 (vols. 12-16 set) 0-7876-5788-3 (vol. 12) 0-7876-5789-1 (vol. 13) 0-7876-5790-5 (vol. 14) 0-7876-5791-3 (vol. 15) 0-7876-5792-1 (vol. 16)

This title is also available as an e-book. ISBN 0-7876-7750-7 (17-vol set) Contact your Gale sales representative for ordering information.


Grzimek, Bernhard. [Tierleben. English]

Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia.— 2nd ed. v. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

Contents: v. 1. Lower metazoans and lesser deuterosomes / Neil Schlager, editor — v. 2. Protostomes / Neil Schlager, editor — v. 3. Insects /

Neil Schlager, editor — v. 4-5. Fishes I-II / Neil Schlager, editor —

v. 6. Amphibians / Neil Schlager, editor — v. 7. Reptiles / Neil

Schlager, editor — v. 8-11. Birds I-IV / Donna Olendorf, editor — v.

12-16. Mammals I-V / Melissa C. McDade, editor — v. 17. Cumulative index /

Melissa C. McDade, editor.

ISBN 0-7876-5362-4 (set hardcover : alk. paper)

1. Zoology—Encyclopedias. I. Title: Animal life encyclopedia. II. Schlager, Neil, 1966- III. Olendorf, Donna IV. McDade, Melissa C. V. American Zoo and Aquarium Association. VI. Title. QL7 .G7813 2004

590'.3—dc21 2002003351

Recommended citation: Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, 2nd edition. Volumes 12-16, Mammals I-V, edited by Michael Hutchins, Devra G. Kleiman, Valerius Geist, and Melissa C. McDade. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group, 2003.

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