Resources

Norconk, Marilyn A., Alfred L. Rosenberger, and Paul A. Garber, eds. Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates. New York: Plenum Press, 1996.

Peetz, Angela Ecology and Social Organization of the Bearded Saki Chiropotes Satanas Chiropotes (Primates: Pitheciinae) in Venezuela. Bonn, Germany: Society of Tropical Ecology, 2001.

Rowe, Noel. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. East Hampton, NY: Pogonias Press, 1996.

Sussman, Robert W. Primate Ecology and Social Structure, Volume 2: New World Monkeys Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Custom Pub., 1999.

Periodicals

Ayres, J. M. "Comparative Feeding Ecology of the Uakari and Bearded Saki, Cacajao and Chiropotes." Journal of Human Evolution 18 (1989): 697-716.

Barnett, A. A., and D. Brandon-Jones. "The Ecology,

Biogeography, and Conservation of the Uakaris, Cacajao (Pitheciinae)." Folia Primatologica 68 (1997): 223-235.

Boubli, J. P. "Feeding Ecology of Black-Headed Uakaris (Cacajao melanocephalus melanocephalus) in Pico Da Neblina National Park, Brazil." International Journal of Primatology 20 (1999): 719-749.

Brush, J. A., and M. A. Norconk. "Early Behavioral

Development in a Wild White-Faced Saki Monkey (Pithecia pithecia)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology Suppl. 28 (1999): 99.

Easley, S. P., and W. G. Kinzey. "Territorial Shift in the Yellow-Handed Titi Monkey (Callicebus torquatus)." American Journal of Primatology 11(1986): 307-318.

Ferrari, S. F. "Observations on Chiropotes albinasus from the Rio Dos Marmelos, Amazonas, Brazil." Primates 36 (1995): 289-293.

Happel, R. E. "Ecology of Pithecia hirsuta in Peru." Journal of Human Evolution 11 (1982): 581-590.

Hershkovitz, P. "A Preliminary Taxonomic Review of the South American Bearded Saki Monkeys Genus Chiropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the Description of a New Subspecies." Fieldiana Zoology 27 (1985): 1-46.

-. "Uacaries, New World Monkeys of the Genus Cacajao

(Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A Preliminary Taxonomic Review with the Description of a New Subspecies." American Journal of Primatology 12 (1987): 1-53.

-. "The Taxonomy of South American Sakis, Genus

Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): A Preliminary Report and Critical Review with the Description of a New Species and a New Subspecies." American Journal of Primatology 12 (1987): 387-468.

Kinzey, W. "Dietary and Dental Adaptations in the Pitheciinae."

American Journal of Physical Anthropology 88 (1992): 499-514.

Kinzey, W. G., and M. Becker. "Activity Pattern of the Masked Titi Monkey, Callicebus personatus." Primates 24 (1983): 337-343.

Kinzey, W. G., and M. A. Norconk. "Hardness as a Basis of Fruit Choice in Two Sympatric Primates." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 81(1990): 5-15.

-. "Physical and Chemical Properties of Fruit and Seeds

Eaten by Pithecia and Chiropotes in Surinam and Venezuela." International Journal of Primatology 14 (1993): 207-227.

Kinzey, W. G., and J. G. Robinson. "Intergroup Loud Calls, Range Size, and Spacing in Callicebus torquatus." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 60(1983): 539-544.

Kinzey, W. G., A. L. Rosenberger, P. S. Heisler, D. L. Prowse, and J. S. Trilling. "A Preliminary Field Investigation of the Yellow Handed Titi Monkey, Callicebus torquatus torquatus, in Northern Peru." Primates 18 (1977): 159-181.

Kinzey, W. G., and P. C. Wright. "Grooming Behavior in the Titi Monkey (Callicebus torquatus)." American Journal of Primatology 3 (1982): 267-275.

Lehman, S., W. Prince, and M. Mayor. "Variations in Group Size in White-Faced Sakis (Pithecia pithecia): Evidence for Monogamy or Seasonal Congregations." Neotropical Primates 9 (2001): 96-101.

Mittermeier, R. A., and M. G. M. van Roosmalen. "Preliminary Observations on Habitat Utilization and Diet in Eight Surinam Monkeys." Folia Primatologica 36 (1981): 1-39.

Mittermeier, R. A., W. R. Konstant, H. Ginsberg, M. G. M. van Roosmalen, and E. Cordeiro da Silva Jr. "Further Evidence of Insect Consumption in the Bearded Saki Monkey, Chiropotes satanas chiropotes." Primates 24 (1983): 602-605.

Norconk, M. A., C. Wertis, and W. G. Kinzey. "Seed

Predation by Monkeys and Macaws in Eastern Venezuela: Preliminary Findings." Primates 38 (1997): 177-184.

Rylands, A. B., H. Schneider, A. Langguth, R. A. Mittermeier, C. P. Groves, and E. Rodriguez-Luna. "An Assessment of the Diversity of New World Primates." Neotropical Primates 8 (2000): 61-93.

Setz, E. Z. F., and D. D. Gaspar. "Scent-Marking Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden-Faced Saki Monkeys, Pithecia pithecia chrysocephala: Sex Differences and Context." Journal of Zoology 241 (1997): 603-611.

van Roosmalen, M. G. M., R. A. Mittermeier, and J. G. Fleagle. "Diet of the Northern Bearded Saki (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes): A Neotropical Seed Predator." American Journal of Primatology 14 (1988): 11-35.

Walker, S. E., and J. M. Ayres. "Positional Behavior of the White Uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101 (1996): 161-172.

Organizations

Conservation International. 1919 M Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036 United States. Phone: (202) 9121000; 1 (800) 406-2306. Web site: <http://www.conservation .org>

Primate Center Library, Wisconsin Primate Research Center. 1200 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715-1299 United States. Phone: (608) 263-3512. Fax: (608) 263-4031. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.primate .wisc.edu/pin/>

World Wildlife Federation (WWF)—The Conservation Organization. 1250 24th Street NW, Washington, DC 20037-1193 United States. Phone: (202) 293-4800. Fax: (202) 293-9211. Web site: <http://www.panda.org>

Brian W. Grafton, PhD

Howler monkeys and spider monkeys

(Atelidae)

Class Mammalia

Order Primates

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Suborder Anthropoidea

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Family Atelidae

Thumbnail description

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The largest New World monkeys, possess

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prehensile tails; range in color from pale blonde

and light gray to black; some have completely

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black faces, others have pink and white facial

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mottling

Size

Ateles: head and body length 15-25 in (38-64

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cm), tail length 20-35 in (51-89 cm), 13.2 lb

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(6 kg). Brachyteles: head and body length:

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18-25 in (46-64 cm), tail length 23-36 in

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(59-92 cm), 15.4-33 lb (7-15 kg); Alouatta:

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head and body length 22-36 in (56-92 cm), tail

length 20-35 in (51-89 cm), 8.8-22 lb (4-10

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kg). Lagothrix: head and body length: 20-35 in

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(51-69 cm), tail length 23-28 in (59-72 cm),

12-24 lb (5.5-10.8 kg)

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Number of genera, species

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5 genera; 22-24 species

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Habitat

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Gallery forest, deciduous and semi-deciduous

rainforest, some species also found in

mangrove swamps or secondary forest Conservation status

Critically Endangered: 3 species; Endangered: 3 species; Vulnerable: 5

Distribution

Mexico through Central and South America

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