All pitheciid species are predominately or exclusively arboreal, but habitat use by the four genera is variable. Both Pithecia and Callicebus are found in a wide variety of habitats. Pithecia species are found in highland and lowland forests, tropical dry forest, igapo, high varzea, secondary forests, disturbed habitats, liana forest, savanna forest, and mountain savanna forests. Callicebus species are found in inundated forests, swamps, and river and lake edges (C. moloch), open canopy in mixed, gallery, evergreen, and tall forests near streams (C. torquatus), and secondary but not primary forest with low canopy, thickets, and vine tangles in the Atlantic Coastal rainforest (C. personatus).

Both Chiropotes and Cacajao are found in fewer habitat types. Chiropotes species are restricted to terra firme, high rainforest, high mountain savanna forest, savanna forest, and high moist forest. They have not been observed in lowland, disturbed, secondary, flooded, or gallery forests. Cacajao species are found almost exclusively in igapo and varzea, but have been observed to seasonally migrate to terra firme forest.

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