All four pitheciid genera are only found in South America. Callicebus has the largest distribution, inhabiting tropical forests in the Amazon and Orinoco basins (C. moloch and C. torquatus groups), the Atlantic coastal forest in Brazil (C. per-sonatus), and the parana forests of Bolivia and Paraguay (C. donacophilus). The two Pithecia species groups are separated by the Amazon River, with the Pithecia pithecia group found in the Guiana Shield north of the Amazon River and east of the Rios Negro and Orinoco, and the P. monachus group found
south of the Amazon and west to the Andean foothills. Chi-ropotes is found north of the Amazon in the Guiana Shield and between Rios Xingu and Garupi south of Amazon (C. satanas), while C. albinasus is found south of the Amazon in Brazil west of the Rio Xingu. The two species are not sympatric. The genus Cacajao is restricted to western Amazon flooded forests, with Cacajao calvus inhabiting inundated forests south of the Amazon on whitewater rivers (varzea) in Brazil and Peru, while C. melanocephalus is only found in inundated forests on black-water rivers (igapo) north of the Amazon in Brazil and Venezuela.
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