Species accounts

Listed as Vulnerable due to habitat loss. SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. Galidia elegans Geoffroy, 1837, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Galidie l gante German Ringelschwanzmungo Spanish Mangosta de cola anillada Malagasy Vontsira mena. Body length 11.8 in (30 cm) tail 8.3 in (21 cm) weight 2 lb (900 g). Fur is soft russet-brown. Tail has five or six black rings. Northern, eastern, and west-central Madagascar. HABITAT Diurnal. Living in pairs or small family groups lead by female....

Physical characteristics

Tarsiers are very small nocturnal and crepuscular primates. They possess a short-snouted, round head, ranging between 1.4 and 1.7 in (3.5-4.4 cm) in length, and middle-sized to very large, skinny, mobile ears. Their eyes are huge, with one eye weighing nearly as much as the whole brain. The eyes do not fit into the cranial orbit, but protrude from their sockets like an egg in an egg cup. The owl-like appearance of tarsiers is a consequence of many common features in the biology of both these...

Introduction

The order Carnivora is one of the 20 orders of mammals. The Carnivora are a diverse group of animals, living in almost any habitat, including the oceans, with over 260 species. Most carnivores are land animals, some like the otters spend much of their lives in water and about 30 species, the seals and their relatives, are marine, only leaving the sea once a year to breed. Despite the name, not all Carnivora live exclusively on meat. Bears, jackals, and foxes are omnivorous, surviving on a diet...

How to use this book

Gzimek,s Animal Life Encyclopedia is an internationally prominent scientific reference compilation, first published in German in the late 1960s, under the editorship of zoologist Bernhard Grzimek (1909-1987). In a cooperative effort between Gale and the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, the series is being completely revised and updated for the first time in over 30 years. Gale is expanding the series from 13 to 17 volumes, commissioning new color images, and updating the information while...

Evolution and systematics

The evolutionary history of the Malagasy prosimians has been, until recently, one of the knottiest in the life sciences. As of 2000, cladistic analyses, genetic and mitochondrial DNA studies, and morphological comparisons support a mono-phyletic (single species) origin of all Malgasy prosimians from a founder species that rafted on vegetation from Africa to Madagascar in the early Eocene epoch (55 to 34 million years ago). There are at least 60 known species of Malagasy prosimians, living and...

Dwarf lemurs and mouse lemurs

Class Mammalia Order Primates Suborder Prosimii Family Cheirogaleidae Dwarf and mouse lemurs are the smallest of the Madagascar lemurs, with colors ranging from gray to dark brown dorsally and cream to yellowish brown ventrally some have conspicuous facial markings (e.g., dark rings around the eyes pale nose stripe) Head and body length, 5-11 in (12-27 cm) weight 1-16.5 oz (30-460 g) Members of this family are found throughout Madagascar in all forest types all species are nocturnal and...

Distribution

Cats are found the world over, with the exception of Australia, the polar regions, and some oceanic islands where they are usually considered a serious pest. However, domestic cats have been introduced to almost all places settled by humans, including Australia and other islands. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to eight cat species, including the largest populations of lion, cheetah, and leopard (P. pardus). These big cats are also found in North Africa and southwest Asia, along with five other...

Conservation status

Both species of Brachyteles, along with the recently recognized genus, Oreonax, are classified as Critically Endangered based on their highly restricted distributions, small population size, and deteriorating habitats. Brachyteles is the only genus of Atelidae endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. The brown howler monkey, Alouatta guariba, is also endemic to the Atlantic forest, and is classified as Vulnerable. The status of Brachyteles hypoxanthus is probably more critical than that of B....

Color graphics enhance understanding

Grzimek,s features approximately 3,000 color photos, including approximately 1,560 in five Mammals volumes 3,500 total color maps, including nearly 550 in the Mammals volumes and approximately 5,500 total color illustrations, including approximately 930 in the Mammals volumes. Each featured species of animal is accompanied by both a distribution map and an illustration. All maps in Grzimek,s were created specifically for the project by XNR Productions. Distribution information was provided by...

Colombian woolly monkey

Lagothrix lugens Elliot, 1907, Colombia. Highly variable in color and patterns, ranging from brown black to lighter gray. Restricted to the headwaters of the Orinoco tributaries in Colombia and Venezuela. In contrast to gray woolly monkeys, the multimale, multi-female groups of Colombia woolly monkeys remain cohesive throughout the year. Males maintain hierarchical relationships, and rarely feed in the same trees with one another. Males are dominant over females, and may exclude non-lactating...

Behavior

Pitheciid social organization is quite variable. Callicebus is unique among pitheciids in exhibiting a pair-bonded, monogamous social structure, living in groups of 2-6 individuals (adult couple and offspring). Pithecia species live in small multimale multifemale groups. Chiropotes lives in A brown titi (Callicebus brunneus) near upper Madre de Dios River in South America. (Photo by Kevin Schafer Corbis. Reproduced by permission.) A brown titi (Callicebus brunneus) near upper Madre de Dios...

Weeper capuchin

Cebus olivaceus Schomburgk, 1848, southern base of Mt. Ro-raima, 3,050 ft (930 m), Bolivar, Venezuela. Five subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Wedge-capped capuchin. Fur is tawny brown on body, with lighter shoulders and upper arms brownish yellow head with black wedge on cap. Head and body length is 14.7-18.1 in (37.4-46 cm). Tail length is 15.7-21.8 in (40-55.4 cm). Weight is 5.3-6.6 lb (2.4-3 kg). Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela. HABITAT Evergreen rainforest,...

Smalltoothed sportive lemur

Lepilemur microdon Forbes, 1894, east of Betsileo, Madagascar. Spanish L mur juguet n de dientes Peque os. Small-toothed sportive lemurs have a head and body length of about 10.2 in (26.0 cm), with a tail length of about 10.6 in (27.0 cm) and weight of about 2.2 lb (1.0 kg). They possess binocular vision, a large cecum, and large digital pads on their hands and feet for clinging. The species is mostly red-brown in color with a dark mid-dorsal line and is yellowish-buff colored laterally and...

Significance to humans

Both genera are used as a model for human research in many forms biomedical, pharmacological, physiological, behavioral social, etc. Members of both genera are commonly found as pets and zoo animals throughout the world. Capuchins and squirrel monkeys are hunted for food (bushmeat) in major portions of their range. In the United States captive breeding programs have been established to help supply the scientific, biomedical, and zoological communities. Squirrel monkeys were used in the space...

Resources

Tamarins and Marmosets Communal Care of Offspring. In Primate Societies, edited by B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1986. Hershkovitz, P. Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini), Volume 1. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1977. Heymann, E. W. The Number of Adult Males in Callitrichine Groups and its Implications for Callitrichine Social Evolution. In Primate Males, edited by P. M. Kappeler....

Reproductive biology

All phocids have an annual reproductive cycle in which females give birth during a fairly distinct breeding period. They are particularly noted for short lactation periods, lasting from as little as four days in the hooded seal to as long as two to three months in a couple of species. Females become receptive near the end of lactation or shortly thereafter in all species. Females of all species exhibit delayed implantation or embryonic diapause during which the fertilized ovum suspends...

Greater sloth lemur

Palaeopropithecus ingens Grandidier, 1899, Madagascar. Its estimated body weight is 121 lb (55 kg). It is dentally similar to the extant sifakas with long, narrow molars, and well-developed shearing crests. It has small, vertical lower incisors with no tooth comb. The skull is similar to living indriids, but more robustly built, with a longer snout, and a heavily buttressed nasal region suggesting prehensile lips. The forelimbs are considerably longer than the hind limbs, and it has very long,...

Cheetah

Felisjubata (Schreber, 1775), South Africa. Two subspecies, African cheetah (Acinonyx j. jubatus) and Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx j. venaticus). The king Cheetah, a mutant form with spots along the spine joined together into stripes, was formerly incorrectly described as a separate species, Acinonyx rex. Cheetahs show a very low level of genetic variation, suggesting they all descend from a very small population bottleneck 10,000 years ago. French Gu pard German Gepard Spanish Guepardo, chita....

Hooded seal

Cystophora cristata (Erxleben, 1777), south Greenland and Newfoundland. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Bladdernose seal. Males 8.3 ft (2.5 m) 660 lb (300 kg) Females 7.3 ft (2.2 m) 440 lb (200 kg). Males and females have similar pelage that is a gray background with black patches. Pups are born with a coat that is blue-gray above and creamy color below. It is not the natal coat as found in most other phocids. The real natal coat in this species is shed in utero. The name hooded seal is derived from...

Eastern woolly lemur

Avahi laniger Jourdan, 1834, Madagscar. Malagasy Avahy, ampongy, fotsifaka, fotsife. Woolly lemurs are small, nocturnal lemurs, well camouflaged in beige, brown, and gray fur. Their ears are small and furred. Their noses are broad, black, and wet. Nocturnal, mediumsmall lemurs adopt a vertical posture. The fur is woolly and dense. The muzzle is short and dark and the head rounded with large brown eyes, accented with beige eyebrows. The fur on the thighs is bright white like splotches of...

Northern plains gray langur

Semnopithecus entellus (Dufresne, 1797), Bengal, India. This species was previously included in the genus Presbytis, but there are enough distinctive characters to justify a separate genus. Furthermore, several of the original subspecies included in the species Semnopithecus entellus are now regarded as separate species. English Hanuman langur, sacred langur, common langur French Houleman German Hanuman Spanish Langur hanuman. Fur gray to brownish gray dorsally and white to creamy white...

Aardwolf and hyenas

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Hyaenidae Large carnivores with powerful forequarters and less well developed hindquarters, large heads, powerful jaws and robust teeth, with medium length tails and four toes on each limb the aardwolf is a diminutive form with poorly developed teeth and five toes on the forefeet well developed anal pouches are present in all species Shoulder height 18-30 in (45-75 cm) head and body length 38-52 in (95-130 cm) 20-190 lb (9-85 kg) From woodland savanna to...

Saddleback tamarin

Midas fuscicollis Spix, 1823, Brazil. Twelve subspecies (some or most of which may represent their own species). French Tamarin a dos brun German Braunruckentamarin Spanish Bebeleche (Colombia), chichico (Ecuador), pichico (Peru). Weight 10.2-14.8 oz (290-420 g) head and body length 7.9-10.6 in (20-27 cm) tail length 11.4-15 in (29-38 cm). It is the smallest member of the genus. Fur occurs on the dorsal side of the head and body tripartite, with an agouti-colored saddle in the middle. H...

Milne Edwardss sifaka

Testicular Atrophy Stages

Grandidier, 1871), Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Malagasy Simpona, simpony. The face is reduced and the muzzle is shortened. Adult females and males do not show differences in weight, canine size, or coloration. Long legs, broad hands and feet, and a vertical clinging and leaping locomotion characterize sifakas. The tail is about the same length as the body. The tooth comb is used for grooming fur by both males and females. Milne-Edwards's sifakas are black with a...

Blanfords fox

Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877, Pakistan. No subspecies recognized. Blanford's fox is a small but otherwise probably typical member of the desert foxes, a group of nine species all in the genus Vulpes, which live in the deserts of the Old World and North America. Genetic evidence shows that the fennec fox is Blanford fox's closest relative. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Afghan fox. The second smallest of the canids after the fennec, Blanford's fox weighs 2.2-3.3 lb (1-1.5 kg) and stands 10.6-11.8 in...

Bateared fox

Canis megalotis (Desmarest, 1822), South Africa. Two subspecies, O. m. megalotis from southwest Africa and O. m. virga-tus from northeast Africa. French L'otocyon German Loffelhund. The bat-eared fox is a typically sized fox weighing from 4.9-9.9 lb (2.2-4.5 kg) and standing 11.8-15.7 in (30-40 cm) at the shoulder. The body is ash gray, paler below, with black at the extremities. The tail is bushy and the ears large. Its teeth are unique in the canids with a series of 32 cheek teeth, all with...

African wild dog

Hyaena picta (Temminck, 1820), Mozambique. There is some genetic differentiation between dogs from East and South Africa, but there is also overlap between the types. English Cape hunting dog, painted wolf French Lycaon German Hyanenhund. The largest canid in Africa, it weighs 39.7-79.4 lb (18-36 kg). It is 27.6 in (70 cm) at the shoulder. The wild dog has a distinctive spotted coat. Its short hair is divided into irregular yellow, black and white markings with each dog unique. The dark muzzle,...

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Giant panda

Ailuropoda melanoleuca (David, 1869), Mou-pin. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Cat bear, black and white bear French Le grand panda German Gro er Panda Spanish Oso panda. Particularly important to the tourism industry. Panda bears are a major attraction in zoos, and a symbol of species conservation efforts. Striking black-and-white bear with black fur around the eyes, on the ears, on all four legs, and across the back from shoulder to shoulder. Sometimes the black fur is replaced with reddish black...

Allens swamp monkey

Allenopithecus nigroviridis (Pocock, 1907), upper Congo River, Zaire. This species was originally included in the genus Cercop-ithecus, but it resembles members of the tribe Papionini in a number of features and is best allocated to the separate genus Allenopithecus. English Allen's swamp guenon French Cercopith que d'Allen German Schwarzgr ne Meerkatze. Fur greenish gray dorsally and pale gray (sometimes with an orange tinge) ventrally. Webbing is present between the fingers and toes. The...

Southern muriqui

Geoffroy, 1806), Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Woolly spider monkey French At le arachno de, ero de, singe-araign e Spanish Mono grande, muriki. Muriquis are distinguishable by their large body size, light pelage, elongated limbs, and prehensile tails. Southern muriquis have black faces and black genitalia, and are lacking a thumb. The canines of males are larger than those of females. Atlantic forest within the states of Sao Paulo, Paran , and probably Rio de...

Mongooses and fossa

Marsh Mongoose

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Suborder Feloidea Family Herpestidae Small to medium-sized carnivores with long bodies, short legs, and highly tapered snouts fur is often grizzled and brown or gray in color 7-31 in (18-80 cm) 7 oz-26.5 lb (200 g-12 kg) Savanna, forest, open woodland, and semi-desert Endangered 6 species Vulnerable 5 species Data Deficient 1 species Africa, Asia, Madagascar, and southern and eastern Mediterranean region Africa, Asia, Madagascar, and southern and eastern...

Red fox

Forty-six races or subspecies have been recognized over the species' immense range. However, much variation appears due to climate, with smaller, paler animals in the south, e.g. Egypt and larger, darker foxes in places like Alaska. English Silver fox (a color morph used in the fur trade), cross fox (a dark, naturally occurring color morph) French Renard German Fuchs Spanish Zorro. The largest of the true foxes, the genus Vulpes, red foxes can weigh up to...

Civets genets and linsangs

Osbornictis Piscivora

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Viverridae Small to medium carnivores resembling the Mustelidae but limited to the Old World body and tail are long, legs are short, and face is elongated with a pointy nose and conspicuous ears claws are short and sharp many species with long, banded tails 13-35 in (33-88 cm), 1.3-30 lb (0.6-13 kg) Forests, steppes, and brushland Conservation status Critically Endangered 1 species Endangered 4 species Vulnerable 6 species Data Deficient 3 species Western...

Organizations

The American Society of Mammalogists American Zoo and Aquarium Association 8403 Colesville Road, Suite 710 Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA. Phone (301) 562-0777 Fax (301) 562-0888 < http www.aza.org > Australian Conservation Foundation Inc. 340 Gore Street Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 Australia Phone (3) 9416 1166 < http www.acfonline.org.au> Australian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 Australia Phone 61 (2) 9978-4797 Fax 61 (2) 9978-4761 < http...

Graybellied night monkey

Gray Bellied Night Monkey

Geoffroy, 1843 , Quindio, Dept. of Caldas, Colombia. Originally included in the species Aotus trivirgatus, the gray-bellied night monkey is now allocated to the separate species Aotus lemurinus, containing 4 subspecies lemurinus, brumbacki, griseimembra, and zonalis . It is quite possible that one or more of these subspecies may actually be a full species, and that one may be the same as A. lemurinus lemurinus. English Gray-bellied owl monkey, gray-bellied douroucouli French...

Sakis titis and uakaris

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Pitheciidae Diverse family of small- to medium-sized monkeys with long, thickly haired tails except Cacajao and long, coarse or dense hair except Chiropotes , which range in color from white, buffy, yellow, and orange to brown, black, gray, and agouti Length 9.1-21.7 in 232-550 mm weight 1.5-7.6 lb 700-3,450 g Highland and lowland rainforest, tropical dry forest, liana forest, savanna forest, mountain savanna forest, secondary forest, igapo, varzea, swamp,...

Ringtailed lemur

Lemur catta Linnaeus, 1758, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Maque, maki mococo, maki German Katta Spanish Lemur colianillado. Adult head-and-body length of 15-18 in 39-46 cm , tail length of 22-24 in 56-62 cm , and adult body weight of 6.5-7.75 lb 3-3.5 kg . People without foreknowledge of lemurs, on seeing ringtailed lemurs in zoos or pictures, may regard them as some sort of aberrant raccoon, suggested by the overall shape and especially by the bandit-masked faces and vividly striped...

Feeding ecology and diet

Red Fox Eating Prey

Most members of the dog family receive the majority of their calories from mammalian prey. At particular times and for particular species, fruit, insects, and other invertebrate prey are important. Every canid species observed to date has been seen trying to catch mouse and rat sized prey. While mice may be a supplementary food source for wolves, they are central in the diet of many fox species. Even a species as large as the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis at 38-44 lb 17-20 kg subsists almost...

Threestriped night monkey

Aotus trivirgatus Humboldt, 1811 , Rio Casiquiare, Duida Range, Venezuela.This species once included all night monkeys but it is now restricted to just one of at least 8 species occupying a far smaller geographical range. English Three-striped douroucouli French Douroucouli a trois raies German Dreistreifennachtaffe. Fur gray to buff-agouti dorsally and bright orange ventrally. Facial fur pale gray stripes on crown brown. Conspicuous orange band down the middle of the back. Because of previous...

Northern greater bushbaby

Otolemur garnettii Ogilby, 1838 , Zanzibar. Formerly included in the genus Galago, but now allocated to the separate genus Otolemur. Previously included as a subspecies of Otolemur crassicaudatus. Four subspecies can be recognized for Otolemur gar-nettii. English Garnett's bushbaby French Galago de Garnett German Garnettgalago. Fur reddish- to grayish brown dorsally and paler but of variable coloration ventrally. No facial markings present. Head and body length 10.5 in 26.5 cm tail length 14.5...

Saguinus Bicolor

Callithrix Jacchus Genitalia

All marmosets and tamarins live in groups. Group sizes range between 3-15 individuals, but most species are typically found in groups of 4-9. Groups of two animals usually represent migrating individuals without a home range or incipient groups. On average, group size is smaller in tamarins and lion tamarins compared to Amazonian and eastern Brazilian marmosets. Large groups of 20 or more individuals reported in the literature most likely represent the temporal association of two or more...

Nancy Mas night monkey

Aotus nancymaae Hershkovitz, 1983, Loreto, Peru. Originally included in the species Aotus trivirgatus but recognized as a separate species because of chromosomal features. English Nancy Ma's owl monkey, Nancy Ma's douroucouli French Douroucouli de Nancy Ma German Nancy Ma-Nachtaffe. Fur gray-agouti dorsally and pale orange ventrally. Facial fur pale gray with three dark brown stripes on the crown. Head and body length 12.5 in 31 cm tail length 15 in 38 cm . Body mass males 1 lb 12 oz 794 g...