Saddleback tamarin

Midas fuscicollis Spix, 1823, Brazil. Twelve subspecies (some or most of which may represent their own species). French Tamarin a dos brun German Braunruckentamarin Spanish Bebeleche (Colombia), chichico (Ecuador), pichico (Peru). Weight 10.2-14.8 oz (290-420 g) head and body length 7.9-10.6 in (20-27 cm) tail length 11.4-15 in (29-38 cm). It is the smallest member of the genus. Fur occurs on the dorsal side of the head and body tripartite, with an agouti-colored saddle in the middle. H...

Milne Edwardss sifaka

Grandidier, 1871), Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Malagasy Simpona, simpony. The face is reduced and the muzzle is shortened. Adult females and males do not show differences in weight, canine size, or coloration. Long legs, broad hands and feet, and a vertical clinging and leaping locomotion characterize sifakas. The tail is about the same length as the body. The tooth comb is used for grooming fur by both males and females. Milne-Edwards's sifakas are black with a...

Significance to humans

Atelidae are represented in the art and legends of the people they live nearby. Their large body size and social habits have probably always made them a source of prized meat. The large testes of Brachyteles were associated with sexual potency, and made into purses by hunters. None of the Atelidae are considered to be agricultural pests or dangerous to humans. The docile behavior of Ateles and Brachyteles also contribute to their desirability as pets. A Geoffrey's spider monkey (Ateles...

Blanfords fox

Vulpes cana Blanford, 1877, Pakistan. No subspecies recognized. Blanford's fox is a small but otherwise probably typical member of the desert foxes, a group of nine species all in the genus Vulpes, which live in the deserts of the Old World and North America. Genetic evidence shows that the fennec fox is Blanford fox's closest relative. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Afghan fox. The second smallest of the canids after the fennec, Blanford's fox weighs 2.2-3.3 lb (1-1.5 kg) and stands 10.6-11.8 in...

Evolution and systematics

The evolutionary history and systematics of the Carnivora are clouded in controversy, as the fossil record is patchy and incomplete. In spite of this limitation it is remarkable what paleontologists, evolutionary biologists and geneticists have managed to uncover in the way of the early history of mammals. A major breakthrough has been the development of accurate methods to date fossils. About 65 million years ago (mya) the dinosaurs, which were the dominant animals on Earth, underwent a rapid...

Bateared fox

Canis megalotis (Desmarest, 1822), South Africa. Two subspecies, O. m. megalotis from southwest Africa and O. m. virga-tus from northeast Africa. French L'otocyon German Loffelhund. The bat-eared fox is a typically sized fox weighing from 4.9-9.9 lb (2.2-4.5 kg) and standing 11.8-15.7 in (30-40 cm) at the shoulder. The body is ash gray, paler below, with black at the extremities. The tail is bushy and the ears large. Its teeth are unique in the canids with a series of 32 cheek teeth, all with...

African wild dog

Hyaena picta (Temminck, 1820), Mozambique. There is some genetic differentiation between dogs from East and South Africa, but there is also overlap between the types. English Cape hunting dog, painted wolf French Lycaon German Hyanenhund. The largest canid in Africa, it weighs 39.7-79.4 lb (18-36 kg). It is 27.6 in (70 cm) at the shoulder. The wild dog has a distinctive spotted coat. Its short hair is divided into irregular yellow, black and white markings with each dog unique. The dark muzzle,...

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Giant panda

Ailuropoda melanoleuca (David, 1869), Mou-pin. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Cat bear, black and white bear French Le grand panda German Gro er Panda Spanish Oso panda. Particularly important to the tourism industry. Panda bears are a major attraction in zoos, and a symbol of species conservation efforts. Striking black-and-white bear with black fur around the eyes, on the ears, on all four legs, and across the back from shoulder to shoulder. Sometimes the black fur is replaced with reddish black...

Allens swamp monkey

Allenopithecus nigroviridis (Pocock, 1907), upper Congo River, Zaire. This species was originally included in the genus Cercop-ithecus, but it resembles members of the tribe Papionini in a number of features and is best allocated to the separate genus Allenopithecus. English Allen's swamp guenon French Cercopith que d'Allen German Schwarzgr ne Meerkatze. Fur greenish gray dorsally and pale gray (sometimes with an orange tinge) ventrally. Webbing is present between the fingers and toes. The...

Southern muriqui

Geoffroy, 1806), Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Woolly spider monkey French At le arachno de, ero de, singe-araign e Spanish Mono grande, muriki. Muriquis are distinguishable by their large body size, light pelage, elongated limbs, and prehensile tails. Southern muriquis have black faces and black genitalia, and are lacking a thumb. The canines of males are larger than those of females. Atlantic forest within the states of Sao Paulo, Paran , and probably Rio de...

Mongooses and fossa

Marsh Mongoose

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Suborder Feloidea Family Herpestidae Small to medium-sized carnivores with long bodies, short legs, and highly tapered snouts fur is often grizzled and brown or gray in color 7-31 in (18-80 cm) 7 oz-26.5 lb (200 g-12 kg) Savanna, forest, open woodland, and semi-desert Endangered 6 species Vulnerable 5 species Data Deficient 1 species Africa, Asia, Madagascar, and southern and eastern Mediterranean region Africa, Asia, Madagascar, and southern and eastern...

Species accounts

Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758, Europe and Asia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Stoat, short-tailed weasel French Belette a queue courte, hermine German Wiesel, Hermelin Spanish Armi o, mostela. Body length 6-10 in (15-25 cm), tail 2-4 in (3-10 cm), weight 0.3-0.8 lb (125-350 g). Long, tubular-shaped body with short limbs. Pelage brown during summer, white during winter, always with a black-tipped tail. The ermine has the greatest distribution of all weasels. It occurs across Europe, Ireland, parts...

Red fox

Forty-six races or subspecies have been recognized over the species' immense range. However, much variation appears due to climate, with smaller, paler animals in the south, e.g. Egypt and larger, darker foxes in places like Alaska. English Silver fox (a color morph used in the fur trade), cross fox (a dark, naturally occurring color morph) French Renard German Fuchs Spanish Zorro. The largest of the true foxes, the genus Vulpes, red foxes can weigh up to...

Resources

Fritts, and Dale R. Seip. Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World. Edmonton Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1995. Creel, Scott, and Nancy M. Creel. The African Wild Dog Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Princeton Princeton University Press, 2002. Fox, M. W., ed. The Wild Canids, Their Systematics, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution. New York Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975. Ginsberg, Joshua, and David Macdonald. Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs An Action...

Civets genets and linsangs

African Civet

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Viverridae Small to medium carnivores resembling the Mustelidae but limited to the Old World body and tail are long, legs are short, and face is elongated with a pointy nose and conspicuous ears claws are short and sharp many species with long, banded tails 13-35 in (33-88 cm), 1.3-30 lb (0.6-13 kg) Forests, steppes, and brushland Conservation status Critically Endangered 1 species Endangered 4 species Vulnerable 6 species Data Deficient 3 species Western...

Organizations

The American Society of Mammalogists American Zoo and Aquarium Association 8403 Colesville Road, Suite 710 Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA. Phone (301) 562-0777 Fax (301) 562-0888 < http www.aza.org > Australian Conservation Foundation Inc. 340 Gore Street Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 Australia Phone (3) 9416 1166 < http www.acfonline.org.au> Australian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 Australia Phone 61 (2) 9978-4797 Fax 61 (2) 9978-4761 < http...

Graybellied night monkey

Gray Bellied Night Monkey

Geoffroy, 1843 , Quindio, Dept. of Caldas, Colombia. Originally included in the species Aotus trivirgatus, the gray-bellied night monkey is now allocated to the separate species Aotus lemurinus, containing 4 subspecies lemurinus, brumbacki, griseimembra, and zonalis . It is quite possible that one or more of these subspecies may actually be a full species, and that one may be the same as A. lemurinus lemurinus. English Gray-bellied owl monkey, gray-bellied douroucouli French...

Sakis titis and uakaris

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Pitheciidae Diverse family of small- to medium-sized monkeys with long, thickly haired tails except Cacajao and long, coarse or dense hair except Chiropotes , which range in color from white, buffy, yellow, and orange to brown, black, gray, and agouti Length 9.1-21.7 in 232-550 mm weight 1.5-7.6 lb 700-3,450 g Highland and lowland rainforest, tropical dry forest, liana forest, savanna forest, mountain savanna forest, secondary forest, igapo, varzea, swamp,...

Reproductive biology

Silverback Jackal

Golden jackals C. aureus are common on the scrubby sand dunes just south of Tel Aviv in Israel. In December a young adult female approaches an adult male who, by his marking behavior, has established a territory for himself. The female is playful and submissive. The male is not very responsive at first and snaps at the female but she follows him and over the next two months they are seen resting and grooming together until they are seldom seen apart. Sometimes the female stands directly in...

Ringtailed lemur

Lemur catta Linnaeus, 1758, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Maque, maki mococo, maki German Katta Spanish Lemur colianillado. Adult head-and-body length of 15-18 in 39-46 cm , tail length of 22-24 in 56-62 cm , and adult body weight of 6.5-7.75 lb 3-3.5 kg . People without foreknowledge of lemurs, on seeing ringtailed lemurs in zoos or pictures, may regard them as some sort of aberrant raccoon, suggested by the overall shape and especially by the bandit-masked faces and vividly striped...

Conservation status

Wild Cheetahs Drinking Water Pics

No fewer than 25 of the 36 cat species are listed by the IUCN, and even those which are not are often subject to serious threat at local or subspecies level, or their population status may simply be insufficiently known to classify. The most immediate threat of extinction is faced by the Iberian lynx, found in only small, isolated, populations in Spain and Portugal. But not far behind are such iconic species as the tiger and the snow leopard. While many species of cat have long been persecuted...

Physical characteristics

Underground Bat Eared Fox

Members of the dog family range in weight from 3-165 1.3-75 kg . Coat colors and patterns vary significantly black, black and white, brown, and red are all very common coat color in many dog breeds. As a family they have longer legs in relation to their weight than the other carnivore families. Their economical trotting gait allows them to cover large areas in search of prey, and most species can accelerate to 25-35 mph 40-56 kph to run down prey. Top speed can usually be maintained for at...

Feeding ecology and diet

Red Fox Eating Prey

Most members of the dog family receive the majority of their calories from mammalian prey. At particular times and for particular species, fruit, insects, and other invertebrate prey are important. Every canid species observed to date has been seen trying to catch mouse and rat sized prey. While mice may be a supplementary food source for wolves, they are central in the diet of many fox species. Even a species as large as the Ethiopian wolf C. simensis at 38-44 lb 17-20 kg subsists almost...

Threestriped night monkey

Aotus trivirgatus Humboldt, 1811 , Rio Casiquiare, Duida Range, Venezuela.This species once included all night monkeys but it is now restricted to just one of at least 8 species occupying a far smaller geographical range. English Three-striped douroucouli French Douroucouli a trois raies German Dreistreifennachtaffe. Fur gray to buff-agouti dorsally and bright orange ventrally. Facial fur pale gray stripes on crown brown. Conspicuous orange band down the middle of the back. Because of previous...

Northern greater bushbaby

Otolemur garnettii Ogilby, 1838 , Zanzibar. Formerly included in the genus Galago, but now allocated to the separate genus Otolemur. Previously included as a subspecies of Otolemur crassicaudatus. Four subspecies can be recognized for Otolemur gar-nettii. English Garnett's bushbaby French Galago de Garnett German Garnettgalago. Fur reddish- to grayish brown dorsally and paler but of variable coloration ventrally. No facial markings present. Head and body length 10.5 in 26.5 cm tail length 14.5...

Saguinus Bicolor

Callithrix Jacchus Genitalia

All marmosets and tamarins live in groups. Group sizes range between 3-15 individuals, but most species are typically found in groups of 4-9. Groups of two animals usually represent migrating individuals without a home range or incipient groups. On average, group size is smaller in tamarins and lion tamarins compared to Amazonian and eastern Brazilian marmosets. Large groups of 20 or more individuals reported in the literature most likely represent the temporal association of two or more...

Nancy Mas night monkey

Aotus nancymaae Hershkovitz, 1983, Loreto, Peru. Originally included in the species Aotus trivirgatus but recognized as a separate species because of chromosomal features. English Nancy Ma's owl monkey, Nancy Ma's douroucouli French Douroucouli de Nancy Ma German Nancy Ma-Nachtaffe. Fur gray-agouti dorsally and pale orange ventrally. Facial fur pale gray with three dark brown stripes on the crown. Head and body length 12.5 in 31 cm tail length 15 in 38 cm . Body mass males 1 lb 12 oz 794 g...

Variegated lemur

Lemur variegata Kerr, 1792, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ruffed lemur. Varecia variegata is the largest in body size of the living Lemuridae species. The adult head-and-body length is 20-22 in 51-56 cm , tail length is 22-25.5 in 56-65 cm , and adult body weight is 7-10 lb 3.2-4.5 kg . Females are larger than males. The ruffed lemur carries a scent gland on its neck, and females have six mammae. There are two subspecies black and white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata variegata and...