Harp seal

Pagophilus groenlandicus (Erxleben, 1777), in Groenlandiaet Newfoundland. English Fjord seal, jar seal Eskimo Natchik. Males 5.6 ft (1.7 m) 297 lb (135 kg) Females 5.6 ft (1.7 m) 240 lb (109 kg). Young adults of both sexes have a silvery gray coat with dark spots. Older adult males have basic pelage that is cream color over which is a black face to the top of the head and a matching harp or saddle pattern of black running along each side. Older females have a similar pattern but the harp...

Organized by taxonomy

The overall structure of this reference work is based on the classification of animals into naturally related groups, a discipline known as taxonomy the science through which various organisms are discovered, identified, described, named, classified, and catalogued. Starting with the simplest life forms, the lower metazoans and lesser deuterostomes, in volume 1, the series progresses through the more complex animal classes, culminating with the mammals in volumes 12-16. Volume 17 is a...

Physical characteristics

Aye-ayes are the largest nocturnal primate. Their pelage consisted of two layers the short, soft underlayer is light in color and thick on the back the outer guard hairs are coarse, dark brown to black at the roots, and gray-white at the tips similar to a didelphid North American possum (Didelphis vir-giniana). Some aye-aye guard hairs have measured 7 in (18 cm). Fur above the eyes and on the throat is often light yellow or beige. Eyes are amber and are not frontally oriented. The body mass of...

Behavior

All species live in multimale, multifemale groups, although one-male, multifemale groups of Alouatta are also common. In the three well-known atelin genera (Ateles, Brachyteles, and Lagothrix), males are philopatric, while females disperse from their natal groups to join other groups of males. In Alouatta, both males and females disperse from their natal groups, usually to establish new troops. Female red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) may be retained in their natal troops, while males...

Resources

The New Encyclopedia of the Cat. London Dorling Kindersley, 2001. Fogle, Bruce. The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. London Dorling Kindersley, 2000. Hare, et al. The Domestication of Social Cognition in Dogs. Science 298 (2002) 1634-1636. Leonard, Jennifer, et al. Ancient DNA Evidence for Old World Origin of New World Dogs. Science 298 (2002) 1613-1616. Savolainen, Peter, et al. Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs. Science 298 (2002) 1610-1613. Trut, Lyudmila....

Rhesus macaque

Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780), Nepal Terai, India. The genus Macaca is the second most species-rich among the cheek-pouched monkeys, with at least 20 species. Within the species Macaca mulatta, six subspecies can be distinguished. English Rhesus monkey French Macaque rh sus German Rhesusaffe Spanish Mono resus. Fur medium brown dorsally, with a reddish tone on the hindquarters, and pale brown ventrally. The skin on the face and rump is red and in adult males the scrotum is also red. The...

Bornean orangutan

Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760), Borneo. Three subspecies. French Orang-outan Spanish Orang-utan. Largest of the arboreal primates, demonstrating extreme sexual dimorphism. Females weigh 70-100 lb (31.8-45.4 kg), males may reach 200 lb (90.7 kg). Hair color ranges from reddish to brown. Adult females lack the prominent cheek pads and throat pouch that are obvious on mature males. Borneo. Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, northwest Kalimantan Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii, southwest Kalimantan Pongo pygmaeus...

Leopard

Felis pardus (Linnaeus, 1758), Egypt. The African subspecies (Panthera p. pardus) occurs over most of the leopard's range. Six other subspecies are in small or isolated populations, most now critically at risk the Amur leopard (Panthera p. orientalis) Anatolian leopard (Panthera p. tulliana) Barbary Leopard (Panthera p. panthera) of North Africa south Arabian leopard (Panthera p. nimr) Zanzibar leopard (Panthera p. adersi) and Sinai leopard (Panthera p. jarvisi). English Panther French L opard,...

Steller sea lion

Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776), Commander and Bering Islands, Russia. English Northern sea lion French Lion de mer de Steller German Stellers Seel we Spanish Lobo marine de Steller Aleut qawax Russian Sivuch. This is the largest of the otariids. Males are reddish or dark brown to nearly white, average 1,248 lb (566 kg), and reach a maximum of 2,469 lb (1,120 kg). Females are tan, average 580 lb (263 kg), and reach a maximum of 772 lb (350 kg). Pups are chocolate, wooly, and weigh...

Brown lemur

Lemur fulvus Geoffroy, 1796, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Fulvous lemur French L mur brun German Brauenmaki. There are seven subspecies of brown lemur. The subspecies are similar in body size and behavior, but pelage color and markings vary among them, and all subspecies show sexual dichro-matism. An adult brown lemur of any subspecies has a head-and-body length of 15-20 in (38-50 cm), tail length 18-24 in (47-60 cm). Adult body weight runs 4.5-9 lb (2.1-4.2 kg). Brown lemurs are...

Conservation status

Four species are Critically Endangered (Piliocolobus ru-fomitratus, Rhinopithecus avunculus, Trachypithecus delacouri, and Trachypithecus poliocephalus), 14 are Endangered (Nasalis lar-vatus, Presbytis comata, Piliocolobus badius, Piliocolobus kirkii, Piliocolobus pennantii, Pygathrix nemaeus, Pygathrix nigripes, Rhinopithecus bieti, Rhinopithecus brelichi, Simias concolor, Trachypithecus auratus, Trachypithecus geei, Trachypithecus pileatus, and Trachypithecus vetulus), seven are Vulnerable...

Jaguar

Felis onca (Linnaeus, 1758), Central America. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Jaguar German Jaguar Spanish Tigre, tigre real, yaguar. Length 44-73 in (112-185 cm) tail 18-30 in (45-75 cm) weight 125-250 lb (57-113 kg). Similar in appearance to leopard. Massive head and strong canines. Yellowish brown coat, marked with dark rosettes around small black spots. Black spots on belly, pale chest. Melanistic (black) forms common. Tail ringed black near to tip. Patagonia to southwest United States. HABITAT...

Brown bear

Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758, sylvis Europaelig frigidaelig assumed to be northern Sweden. Five subspecies. English Grizzly, kodiak, coastal brown bear, Alaskan brown bear, Asiatic brown bear, Russian brown bear, European brown bear, Himalayan snow bear, Syrian bear French L'ours brun German Braunb r Spanish Oso pardo. A large bear that varies in color from its typical brown to light tan or black. Large muscles create a noticeable shoulder hump that is further exaggerated in some geographic...

Northern sportive lemur

Lepilemur septentrionalis Rumpler and Albignac, 1975, Sahafary Forest, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Spanish L mur juguet n norte o. I Lepilemur edwardsi I Lepilemur septentrionalis Northern sportive lemurs possess binocular vision, a large cecum, and have large digital pads on their hands and feet for clinging. The upper parts of this species are gray, being darkest on the crown and paler in gray color on the rump and the hind limbs. From the crown down the back there is a darker gray median...

Feeding ecology and diet

As stated previously, fur seals tend to forage on the high seas, and sea lions tend to forage near the coast. Fur seals are Gal pagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) subadults, sparring. (Photo by Tui De Roy. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Gal pagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) subadults, sparring. (Photo by Tui De Roy. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) fairly small (females average less than 110 lb 50 kg ), and can thrive on large numbers of small fish (like...

Snow leopard

Felis uncial (Schreber, 1775), Persia. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Ounce French Panth re des nieges, l opard des nieges, once German Schneeleopard, Irbis Spanish Leopardo nival, pantera de las nieves. Length up to 51 in (130 cm) tail 31-39 in (80-100 cm) weight 77-120 lb (350-55 kg). Highly adapted to extreme conditions. Well-developed chest muscles, short forelimbs, thick tail to keep balance. Enlarged nasal cavity warms air passing into body. Thick coat up to 5 in (12 cm) long, with dense,...

Chimpanzee

Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1775), Mayoumba, Gabon. Four subspecies. English Common chimpanzee, robust chimpanzee French Chimpanz Spanish Chimpanc . Compact and muscular build. Hair is generally black, but may turn gray with age. Slight sexual dimorphism. Females weigh 70-100 lb (31.8-45.4 kg) and males may be 80-130 lb (36.3-59 kg). Large portion of Africa, beginning in Senegal and reaching the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania. Pan troglodytes...

Habitat

Cheek-pouched monkeys occur in a remarkably wide range of habitats, spanning the spectrum from semi-arid scrub vegetation marked by strictly seasonal rainfall to highly humid evergreen tropical rainforest with year-round rainfall. Most species depend upon trees to some extent, at least for sleeping sites during the night. Most species typically inhabit evergreen tropical rainforest. This applies to most guenons (genera Allenopithecus and Cercopithecus), talapoins (genus Mio-pithecus), mangabeys...

Significance to humans

Indigenous subsistence hunting was done initially to provide food and other materials (e.g. skin for umiak or traditional Eskimo boats, oil for fuel, and tusks for artwork). European hunters took large numbers of walruses for similar reasons, but far in excess of what could reasonably be used. Today walrus meat is eaten little by people but still used to feed dogs. Tusks and bone are still carved for artwork and sold on the world market, but under strict control by international convention.

Yellowbreasted capuchin

Cebus xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826. Monotypic elevated from subspecies of Cebus apella in 1997. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Yellow-bellied capuchin. Fur is dark to light brown on body with underside and shoulders yellowish gold. Adults have two tufts of erect fur on crown of head. Head and body length is 13.8-19.2 in (35-48.8 cm). Tail length is 14.8-19.2 in (37.5-49 cm). Weight is 3-10.6 lb (1.4-4.8 kg). Atlantic forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil. Not known in the wild, but assumed to be...

Kloss gibbon

Hylobates klossi (Miller, 1903), south Pagai Island, west Sumatra, Indonesia. One localized species. English Dwarf gibbon, Mentawai gibbon French Siamang de Kloss German Kloss-Gibbon Spanish Siamang enano. Size 18.0 in (45.7 cm) weight 12.8 lb (5.8 kg). Monochromatic, both sexes black at all ages. Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, west of Sumatra Siberut, Sipora, and north and south Pagai. Population density 2.8 groups 2.5 mi2 (km2 home range 79 ac (32 ha), 66 defended as territory 52 ac (21 ha) day...

Northern elephant seal

Mirounga angustirostris (Gill, 1866), California. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Northern sea elephant. Males 13.2 ft (4.0 m) 3,750 lb (1,704 kg) Females 10.6 ft (3.2 m) 1,122 lb (510 kg). Males differ from females in that they have an enlarged proboscis and more highly developed neck with thickened skin than females. The pelage of males is dark gray upper and lighter gray under females are browner than males and darker. Pups are born with a near black natal coat. The breeding range is from...

Whitefronted capuchin

Cebus albifrons (Humboldt, 1812), Orinoco River, Venezuela. Eleven subspecies. Fur color varies from light to dark brown with a dark wedge-shaped cap and white-yellow underside. Head and body length is 14.1-18.1 in (35.8-46 cm). Tail length is 15.8-18.7 in (40.1-47.5 cm). Weight is 3.1-7.2 lb (1.4-3.3 kg). Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Primary deciduous, gallery, mangrove, and flooded forest up to 6,500 ft (2,000 m). Diurnal and arboreal....

Collared mangabey

Cercocebus torquatus (Kerr, 1792), west Africa. All mangabeys were included in the single genus Cercobecus until it was realized that they fall into two distinct groups that have independently undergone facial shortening. Predominantly arboreal mangabeys that are more closely allied to baboons (Papio) are now allocated to the separate genus Lophocebus. More terrestrial mangabeys of the genus Cercobecus are instead related to Mandrillus. English Red-capped mangabey, white-collared mangabey...

Evolution and systematics

The family includes six extant genera tamarins (Saguinus, 15 species), lion tamarins (Leontopithecus, 4 species), Goeldi's monkey (Callimico, 1 species), eastern Brazilian marmosets (Callithrix, 6 species), Amazonian marmosets (Mico, 14 species), and pygmy marmosets (Cebuella, 1 species). Their closest allies among the primates are the capuchins and squirrel monkeys, family Cebidae. The monotypic Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) has often been classified as a member of its own family...

Serval

Felis serval (Schreber, 1776), South Africa. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Serval, chat-tigre, lynx tachet German Serval Katze Spanish Serval. Length 26-39 in (67-100 cm) tail 14-16 in (35-40 cm) weight 20-40 lb (9-18 kg). Slim, long legged, tall cat, adapted to hunting in long grass. Elongated neck, small head, tall ears with very acute hearing. Pale yellow coat marked with solid black spots along sides and bars on neck and shoulders. Black servals widely recorded. Sub-Saharan Africa. Isolated...

Bears

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Suborder Fissipedia Family Ursidae Medium to large, stocky mammals with fur that may be black, brown, reddish, or white Adults average 4-5 ft (1.2-1.5 m) and 60-150 lbs (27-70 kg) in body length for sun bears to 8-9 ft (2.4-2.7 m) and 900-1,300 lbs (400-590 kg) for polar bears Wide ranging, including forests, rainforests, tundra, deserts, and swamps Endangered 1 species Vulnerable 3 species Lower Risk Conservation Dependent 1 species Data Deficient 1 species On...

Zanzibar bushbaby

Galago zanzibaricus, (Matschie, 1893), Yamhiani, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Long regarded as a subspecies of the considerably larger-bodied Galago senegalensis but now recognized as a distinct species. Two subspecies are recognized. French Galago de Zanzibar German Zanzibargalago. Fur brown dorsally and pale brown ventrally. Yellowish tinge on cheeks and throat. Thick black eye rings present and separated by a long, thick white stripe extending up the snout from the rhinarium to the forehead. Head and...

Bobcat

Felis rufa (Schreber, 1776), New York State. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Lynx rous German Rotluchs, Luchskatz Spanish Lince, lince rojo, gato mont s. Length 24-42 in (62-106 cm) tail 5-8 in (13-20 cm) weight 13-37 lb (6-17 kg). Heavily built with short tail. Light gray to reddish brown coat barred and spotted with black, white belly, black tip to tail. Ruff around face. Ears with short tufts. Southern Canada to northern Mexico, mainly United States. HABITAT Varied. Rocky scree, broken terrain,...

Library advisors

Head, Science & Technology Department Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Linda L. Coates Associate Director of Libraries Zoological Society of San Diego Library San Diego, California Life Sciences bibliographer and head, Access Services Seeley G. Mudd Library for Science and Engineering Evanston, Illinois Oklahoma City Zoo Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Charles Jones Library Media Specialist Plymouth Salem High School Plymouth, Michigan Reviewer General Reference teacher Tampa,...

Blackcapped capuchin

Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758), French Guiana. Ten subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Brown or tufted capuchin French Sapajou apelle Spanish Capuchino de copete. Fur is dark to light brown on body with underside and shoulders sometimes lighter hands and feet always black. Adults have two tufts of erect fur on crown of head. Head and body length is 13.8-19.2 in (35-48.8 cm). Tail length is 14.8-19.2 in (37.5-49 cm). Weight is 3-10.6 lb (1.4-4.8 kg). Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia,...

Mandrill

Mandrillus sphinx (Linnaeus, 1758), Bitye, Ja River, Cameroon. This is one of only two species in the genus Mandrillus. French Mandrill German Mandrill Spanish Mandril. Body fur is grizzled light brown dorsally and gray-white ven-trally. There is pronounced sexual dimorphism in coloration of the face and rump, with males being more brightly colored than females. In males, the nose is bright red and flanked by blue, ridged paranasal bulges along with white whiskers. There is an orange-yellow...

Muellers gibbon

Hylobates muelleri Martin, 1841, Kalimantan, Indonesia. Three subspecies around northern and eastern Borneo (H. m. abbotti H. funereus, and H. muelleri). English Bornean gibbon, gray gibbon French Gibbon de Mueller German Grauer-Gibbon, Borneo-Gibbon Spanish Gibon de Mueller. Size 16.5-18.5 in (42-47 cm) weight 12.6 lb (5.7 kg). Brown to gray with dark cap and chest, more so in female face ring in male. Borneo, north of Kapuas River in west Kalimantan, Sarawak, Sabah, and east and central...

Hamadryas baboon

Papio hamadryas (Linnaeus, 1758), Egypt. There has been considerable discussion about the taxonomy of baboons in the genus Papio because of the existence of hybrid zones between at least some of the main populations. One approach has been to recognize five different species, one being Papio hamadryas and the others being Papio anubis, Papio cynocephalus, Papio papio, and Papio ursinus. At the other extreme, it has been suggested that it would be appropriate to recognize only the single...

Reproductive biology

Field studies have consistently indicated that night monkeys are monogamous, living in pairs along with any immature offspring. The testes are relatively small and spermatogenesis seems to take place with a remarkably low turnover. For Ao-tus lemurinus griseimembra, the ovarian cycle is 15-16 days long and the gestation period was found to be 133 days from a single timed mating. The latter figure is likely to apply to all night monkeys, as an overall range of gestation periods of 122-141 days...

Redtailed sportive lemur

Grandidier, 1867, Morondara, Madagascar. French Petit l pil mur Spanish L mur juguet n de cola roja. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Red-tailed sportive lemurs have a head and body length of about 11.0 (28.0 cm), with a tail length of 9.8-10.2 in (25.0-26.0 cm) and a fluctuating weight of 1.3-2.0 lb (0.6-0.9 kg). They are arboreal and nocturnal, and possess binocular I Lepilemur mustelinus I Lepilemur ruficaudatus vision, a large cecum, and large digital pads on its hands and...

Distribution

The family is found only in Central and South America. Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) have the most extensive distribution, which ranges from southern Mexico in the north to northern Argentina in the south. Spider monkeys (genus Ateles) occur from southern Mexico, through Central America and the Amazon. Woolly monkeys (genus Lagothrix) are restricted to the Amazon, with the recently recognized genus Oreonax, or the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, found only in the northeastern montane cloud...

Whitefaced saki

Pithecia pithecia Linnaeus, 1766, French Guiana. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Flying jack, Guianan saki Spanish Parauacu. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Head and body length is 13.2-13.8 in (335-350 mm) tail length is 13.5-17.5 in (342-445 mm) and weight is 27.5-88.2 oz (779-2,500 g). They possess long, coarse, fluffy hair and long, thickly haired, non-prehensile tail. Males are colored black with a white face and black nose. Females possess agouti with white stripes along the sides of the nose. Guiana...

American black bear

Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780, type locality not given but assumed to be eastern North America. Up to 18 subspecies. English North American black bear, cinnamon bear, kermode bear, glacier bear French L'ours noir German Amerikanischer Schwarzb r Spanish Oso negro, oso varibal, oso negro americano. A relatively short-haired bear with curved claws rather short tail conspicuous, but not overly large ears and fairly long, often tawny snout. Somewhat similar to the brown bear, but the American black...

Northern fur seal

Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus, 1758), Bering Island. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Sea bear French Otarie des Pribilofs German N rdliche Pelzrobbe Spanish Lobo fino del norte. Males to 606 lb (275 kg), gray to black or reddish. Females to 110 lb (50 kg), gray. Rear flippers long and slender hair on front flippers stops abruptly at the wrist joint. In all other otariids hair extends beyond the wrist joint. The species breeds from southern California to the Kuril Islands with the main populations at...

Philippine tarsier

Tarsius syrichta Linnaeus, 1758, southern Philippine Islands. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Tarsier des Philippines German Philippinenkobold-maki. 11.5-15.9 in (29.-40.2 cm) 3.9-5 oz (110-142 g) light buff or sand-colored, more gray than the other species tail tuft very sparse and short. Southeastern Philippine islands of Samar, Marippi, Biliran, Leyte, Dinagat, Siargao, Bohol, and Mindanao. Secondary lowland rainforest in early mid-succession, rarely shrubs or bamboo, not in grassland or...

Weasel sportive lemur

Geoffroy, 1851, north of Tamataire, Madagascar. French Grand l pil mur Spanish L mur juguet n comadreja. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Body and head length of 11.0-13.8 in (28.0-35.0 cm) tail length of 9.8-11.8 in (25.0-30.0 cm) and weight of 20.6-22.9 oz (583-650 g). It has binocular vision, a large cecum, and large digital pads on hands and feet that are used for clinging. The species has a pelage color that is brown dorsally and gray-brown ventrally, with a gray coloring...

Whitefooted sportive lemur

Lepilemur leucopus Major, 1894, Fort Dauphin (Bevilany), Madagascar. English White-footed weasel lemur Spanish L mur Juguet n de patas blancas. White-footed sportive lemurs have a head and body length of about 9.8 in (25.0 cm), with a tail length of about 9.8 in (25.0 cm) and weight of 19.2-20.5 oz (544-580 g). They have binocular vision (with large eyes), large prominent ears, a large ce-cum, and large digital pads on their hands and feet for clinging. This species has a pelage color that is...

Patas monkey

Erythrocebus patas (Schreber, 1775), Senegal. The patas monkey is sometimes included in the genus Cercopithecus, but it is so distinctive in many features that recognition of the separate genus Erythrocebus is surely justified. Four subspecies have been recognized. English Hussar monkey, red monkey French Patas German Husarenaffe. This is the largest species in the guenon tribe Cercopithecini and there is pronounced sexual dimorphism in body size, with males weighing almost twice as much as...

Crowned lemur

Lemur coronatus Gray, 1842, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES French L mur couronn German Kronenmaki Spanish Lemur coronado. Head-and-body length averages 13.4 in (34 cm), tail length 17.7 in (45 cm). Adult body weight averages 4.5 lb (2 kg). The species is sexually dichromatic. Males are gray-brown, females are more gray. The male wears a triangular patch of black fur between his ears, and the female keeps a bright red-orange V-shaped patch leading from the brows back and along the bases of the...

Hoolock gibbon

Hylobates hoolock, Harlan, 1834, Chindwin River, Burma. Two subspecies east (H. h. leuconedys) and west (H. h. hoolock). English White-browed gibbon French Hoolock German Hulock Spanish Gibon hulock. Female size 19 in (48.3 cm) male weight 15.2 lb (6.9 kg) female 15.4 lb (6.1 kg). Sexually dichromatic male is black with white eyebrows (flicked up laterally) female is golden, darker on cheeks and chest, whitish eyebrows neonate is white to gray juveniles of both sexes are black. India (northeast...

Eastern gorilla

Two subspecies. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Mountain gorilla, eastern lowland gorilla. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Largest of the terrestrial primates, demonstrating extreme sexual dimorphism. The hair is primarily black, and may be quite long with a shaggy appearance. Mature males sport silver hair on their back. East Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo into Rwanda and Uganda. Gorilla beringei beringei (mountain gorilla), Uganda, Rwanda, and Democratic Republic...

Cebidae

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Cebidae Subfamily Cebinae Squirrel monkeys have slender bodies while capuchins are more robust and have prehensile tails both genera have rounded heads with flat faces and short muzzles some capuchins have tufts of fur on their heads all are arboreal and move quadrupedally Squirrel monkey body weight, 1.2-2.75 lb (0.55-1.25 kg) Capuchin body weight, 2.4-7.3 lb (1.1-3.3 kg) Forest-living, occurring in a range of forest types from dry forest to dense evergreen...

Redshanked douc langur

Pygathrix nemaeus (Linnaeus, 1771), Cochin-China (Indochina). Two subspecies were originally recognized in this species, but they have been raised to the rank of separate species, the other being Pygathrix nigripes. A third species, Pygathrix cinerea, was described only in 1997. French Rhinopitheque douc du nord German N rdlicher Kleideraffe Spanish Mono pigatrix. The douc langurs are probably the most colorful leaf-monkey species. In the red-shanked douc langur, the fur is grizzled medium gray...

Graybacked sportive lemur

Lepilemur dorsalis Gray, 1870, northwestern Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Spanish L mur juguet n de lomo gris. Gray-backed sportive lemurs have a head and body length of 9.8-10.2 in (25.0-26.0 cm), with a tail length of 10.2-10.6 in (26.0-27.0 cm) and an average body weight of 1.1 lb (0.5 kg). They have binocular vision, and hands and feet containing large digital pads that are used for clinging. The upper (dorsal) parts of the animal are colored medium to dark brown and its lower (ventral)...

Wild cat

Felis (Catus) silvestris Schreber, 1775, Germany. Up to 26 subspecies have been claimed. Four groups are commonly recognized, including the domestic cat (Felis s. catus), the African wild cat group (Felis s. lybica), the forest cats of Europe (silvestris group), and the steppe cats (ornata group) of south and central Asia. European form is oldest, descended from Martelli's cat (Felis silvestris lunensis) 250,000 years ago. African wildcat diverged only 20,000 years ago. Domestic cat derived...

Goldencheeked gibbon

Nomascus gabriellae (Thomas, 1909), Langbian, Vietnam. Probably monotypic species. English Buff-cheeked gibbon, yellow-cheeked crested gibbon German Gelbwangen-Schopfgibbon. Weight 12.7 lb (5.8 kg). Male, black with yellowy out-brushed cheeks, rusty brown on chest female, pale yellow or orange-yellow, yellowish incomplete face ring, cheek hair brushed out infants born whitish buff, changing to black until puberty (females). Southern Vietnam and Cambodia east of the Mekong River. HABITAT...

Pygmy marmoset

Jacchus pygmaeus Spix, 1823, Tabatinga, Brazil. Two subspecies. French Ouistiti mignon German Zwergseidenaffe Spanish Leoncito (Peru, Ecuador), mono de bolsillo (Colombia). Average male weight 3.9 oz (110 g), female weight 4.3 oz (122 g) head and body length 5.4-6 in (13.6-15.2 cm) tail length 6.8-9 in (17.2-22.9 cm). Coat is yellow-brown tail has faint rings. It is the smallest New World monkey. Western Amazonia, south of the rivers Caqueta and Solimoes and west of the Rio Madeira. Tropical...

Bolivian squirrel monkey

Geoffroy and Blainville, 1834), Guarayos Mission, Rio San Miguel, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Four subspecies. Elevated from subspecies of Saimiri sciureus in 1984. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Black-headed squirrel monkey. Fur is sexually dichromatic males gray and females black. Yellow at base of crown, on forearms, hands, and feet. Roman (rounded) arch over eyes. Head and body length is 12.2 in (31 cm). Tail length is 14.2 in (36 cm). Weight is 24.7-38.4 oz (700-1,088 g)....

South American sea lion

Otaria byronia (Blainville, 1820), Island of Tinian (in error, probably strait of Magellan). French Lion de mer d'Am rique du Sud German M hnenrobbe, S damerikanischer Seel we Spanish Lobo com n. Males to 772 lb (350 kg), brownish in color with a rough mane and unusually large neck and head. Females to 331 lb (150 kg), tawny. Ocean near the Falkland Islands and eastern coast of South America. Breeds on sand, cobble, or rock. Found on the Falkland Islands, from southern Brazil to Cape Horn (more...

Speciesspecific behaviors Language tool behavior and technology

Humans are characterized by language, which is a species-specific type of vocal communication. Special neuroanatom-ical centers, usually located in the left cerebral hemisphere, underlie human language abilities. Human sign languages, which are non-vocal, also utilize these centers. Although other mammals and birds possess complex vocal communication with referential signaling, human language has the unique property of recursion. This is the ability to create an infinite number of expressions...

Black lemur

Lemur macaco Linnaeus, 1766, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Blue-eyed lemur, Sclater's lemur French L mur macaco, maki dimorphisme German Mohrenmaki Spanish Lemur negro. There are two subspecies, black lemurs or Lemur macaco macaco and blue-eyed lemurs or Sclater's lemurs, Lemur macaco flav-ifrons. Blue-eyed lemurs are the only primates besides humanity to bear blue eyes. The trait is probably due to the genetics of an isolated population that enabled recessive genes to ex- H Lemur...

Caracal

Felis caracal (Schreber, 1776), South Africa OTHER COMMON NAMES English Desert lynx French Caracal German Caracal, Wustenluchs Spanish Caracal, lince africano. Length 22-35 in (55-90 cm) tail 9-13 in (22-34 cm) weight 35-48 lb (16-22 kg). Uniform tawny brown to brick-red coat. Short face, large ears with black backs and 2 in (5 cm) black tufts. Dark facial markings on cheeks and above eyes, edged with white. Very long legs, with high hindquarters and big feet. Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia from...

Geoffroys spider monkey

Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl, 1820, Nicaragua. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Black-handed spider monkey. Body coat varies in color from yellow, to red, to black, with black hands and feet. Cheek hairs stand out, and that hair on the top of the head forms a cowl that ends in a triangular crest over the brows. Northeast and west coast of Mexico to Panama. HABITAT Evergreen rainforest, semi-deciduous forest, mangrove forest. BEHAVIOR Multimale, multifemales groups with over 40 individuals routinely split up...

Glossary

Adaptive radiation Diversification of a species or single ancestral type into several forms that are each adaptively specialized to a specific niche. Agonistic Behavioral patterns that are aggressive in context. Allopatric Occurring in separate, nonoverlapping geographic areas. Alpha breeder The reproductively dominant member of a social unit. Altricial An adjective referring to a mammal that is born with little, if any, hair, is unable to feed itself, and initially has poor sensory and...

Old World monkeys I

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Cercopithecidae Subfamily Colobinae Medium-sized, essentially arboreal mammals with forward-facing, quite large eyes, relatively large brains and a quadrupedal pattern of locomotion involving grasping hands and feet Average body weights range from 9 lb 13 oz (4.45 kg) to 33 lb 5 oz (15.1 kg) Essentially forest-living, but occur in a range of forest types extending from relatively open dry forest to dense evergreen tropical rainforest Critically Endangered 4...

Barbary macaque

Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758), Barbary Coast, north Africa. This is the only one of 20 species of the genus Macaca that occurs in Africa. All other species are confined to Asia and Southeast Asia. English Barbary ape French Magot German Berberaffe Spanish Mono de Berberea. Fur coarse grayish yellow agouti dorsally and gray-white ven-trally. Eyelids pale. Face pink in juveniles but becoming progressively mottled with dark freckles with increasing maturity. There is moderate sexual dimorphism...

Bonobo

Pan paniscus Schwarz, 1929, south of the upper Maringa River, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Monotypic. English Pygmy chimpanzee, gracile chimpanzee, dwarf chimpanzee French Chimpanz nain, chimpanz pygm e Spanish Chimpanc pigmeo. Much more slender than the chimpanzee. Hair is black, and is distinctly parted down the center of the head. Slight sexual dimorphism. Females may weigh around 70 lb (31.8 kg), and males less than 100 lb (45.4 kg). The skin on the face is always very dark. Primary...

Dogs wolves coyotes jackals and foxes

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Canidae Coat colors may be black, brown, or red cursorial predators, they have both cutting and grinding teeth. Open and lightly wooded country for most species Extinct 1 species Critically Endangered 2 species Endangered 1 species Vulnerable 2 species Lower Risk 3 species Data Deficient 9 species All continents except Antarctica and Australia (wild canids) domestic dogs worldwide All continents except Antarctica and Australia (wild canids) domestic dogs...

Goldenheaded lion tamarin

Midas chrysomelas Kuhl, 1820, Bahia, Brazil. French Singe lion t te d'or German Goldkopf-Lowenaffe Portuguese Mico-leao-de-cara-dourada. Male weight 21.9 oz (620 g), female weight 18.9 oz (535 g) head and body length 8.7-10.2 in (22-26 cm) tail length 13.0-15.4 in (33-39 cm). Rump with black fur arms, part of tail, and fringe around face is golden in color. Forest remnants in the southern part of the state of Bahia, Brazil. HABITAT Tropical rainforest in coastal region, semi-deciduous forest...

Mongoose lemur

Lemur mongoz Linnaeus, 1766, Anjouan Island, Comoros. OTHER COMMON NAMES French L mur mongoz German Mongozmaki Spanish Lemur mangosta. Adults have an average head-and-body length of 14 in (35 cm), tail length of 19 in (48 cm), and adult body weight of 4.5 lb (2 kg). Pelages are colored gray on the heads, forelimbs, and shoulders, dark grey on the back, accentuated by a reddish brown beard. Often the muzzle is white. The eyes are a lustrous red-brown. Mongoose lemurs are found in forests in...

Peruvian spider monkey

English Black-faced black spider monkey. Pelage and face is black, with a silvery genital patch and sometimes, white facial hairs. Peru to the Rio Tapajos in Brazil. HABITAT Primary tropical rainforest. BEHAVIOR A study of Peruvian spider monkeys (previously, Ateles paniscus chamek) at Manu National Park, Peru, emphasized the fluidity of grouping patterns and sex differences in behavior. Males associate and groom with one another more than with females, and maintain hierarchical relationships....

Species accounts

Viverra civetta (Schreber, 1776), Guinea. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Civet cat French Civette africaine German Afrika Zibetkatze Spanish Cibeta. Body length 27-33 in (67-84 cm), tail 13-19 in (34-47 cm), weight 22-38 lb (10-17 kg). It has medium-length legs and a rather long, erectile dorsal mane. The ash-gray to yellowish basic coloration has numerous black-brown spots on the sides of the body. Solitary, territorial, and predominantly nocturnal, African civets rest in dense vegetation during...

Western fattailed dwarf lemur

Geoffroy, 1812, Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. French Petit cheirogale German Fettschwanz-Katzenmaki. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Fur soft and dense dorsal fur pale silvery gray (sometimes tinged with pale brown) ventral fur creamy white or yellowish white. Eyes surrounded by dark rings and separated by a pale nose stripe. Ears medium-sized and naked, but partially hidden by surrounding fur. Length 7.6 in (19 cm), tail 7.6 in (19 cm) 7 oz (188 g) for males, 6 oz (172 g) for...

Moustached guenon

Cercopithecus cephus (Linnaeus, 1758), Africa. The genus Cercopithecus is the most species-rich among the cheek-pouched monkeys, with a total of at least 26 species. Three subspecies have been recognized within the species Cercopithecus cephus. English Moustached monkey French Cercopith que moustachu German Blaumaulmeerkatze. Fur brown with rufous tint dorsally and gray-white ventrally. The face is mainly black, with blue skin surrounding the eyes. There is a conspicuous white bar (moustache)...

Buffyheaded marmoset

Hapale flaviceps Thomas, 1903, Espirito Santo, Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Ouistiti t te jaune German Gelbkopfbuschelaffe Portuguese Sagui-da-serra. Average weight 14.3 oz (406 g) head and body length 8.7-9.8 in (22.2-24.8 cm) tail length 11.7-13.8 in (29.8-35 cm) Fur appears on the head and ear tufts are buffy-yellowish in color. Forest remnants in the states of Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais. Seasonal, altitudinal Atlantic coastal forest. BEHAVIOR Group size varies between 5-15 a...

Iberian lynx

Felis pardina (Temminck, 1827), Portugal. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Pardel lynx French Lynx d'Espagne German Pardelluchs Spanish Lince Iberico. Length 25-39 in (65-100 cm) tail 2-8 in (5-19 cm) weight 11-28 lb (5-13 kg). Light brown coat marked with black spots on body, tail and limbs. Woodland and scrub with areas of open pasture. BEHAVIOR Primarily nocturnal, activity peak at dusk. Active in daytime more in winter. Male home range averages 7 mi2 (18 km2), female 4 mi2 (10 km2) in Coto Donana...

Popular pets

Pull Across The Snow

According to the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association 2001-2002 National Pet Owners Survey, there are an estimated 73 million pet cats in the United States. About one out of every three households has at least one cat and, on average, have two cats. Males and females are equally popular and about 80 of all household cats are spayed or neutered. Dogs currently are just slightly less popular than cats. Although more households (four out every ten) have a dog than a cat, most households...

Night monkeys

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Aotidae Gracile monkeys with a slender body and a rounded head face flat with short muzzle nocturnal habits reflected by remarkably large eyes, resulting in the alternate name owl monkeys, and inconspicuous pelage coloration Medium-sized monkeys weighing approximately 2 lb (910 g) Evergreen tropical rainforest, gallery forest, and mixed deciduous forest Vulnerable 2 species Data Deficient 1 species After howler monkeys (genus Alouatta), this is the second...

Nutritional ecology

Humans were eating wild plant foods from the origins of the subfamily Homininae about 6 mya until the inception of agriculture 11,000 years ago. Comparisons with omnivorous, widespread non-human primates such as baboons make it likely that the earliest hominins consumed a variety of plants and plant parts, and also consumed insects, eggs, and small animals like birds and hares. Bone chemistry analyzing stable carbon isotopes shows that South African australopithecines...

Standards employed

In preparing these volumes, the editors adopted a conservative approach to taxonomy, relying on Wilson and Reeder's Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (1993) as a guide. Systematics is a dynamic discipline in that new species are being discovered continuously, and new techniques (e.g., DNA sequencing) frequently result in changes in the hypothesized evolutionary relationships among various organisms. Consequently, controversy often exists regarding classification...

Gray seal

Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius, 1791), Greenland. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Horsehead seal, Atlantic seal, Atlantic gray seal, Baltic gray seal. Males 7.1 ft (2.3 m) 595 lb (271 kg) Females 6.2 ft (2 m) 455 lb (207 kg). Males are noted for their large curved snout, which females do not have. Males generally have a dark pelage (black or charcoal gray) that is sometimes mottled with gray patterns females generally have lighter gray pelage that is usually mottled with black patterns. Both show...

Baboon lemur

Archaeolemur edwardsi Filhol, 1895, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES Malagasy Kadoky. Its estimated body weight is 49 lb (22 kg). Males and females had the same body size. Tooth eruption patterns, including rapid eruption of adult dentition, are reminiscent of the living indris, sifakas, and woolly lemurs. The anterior premolar is caniniform, and the entire premolar row formed a long cutting edge. The broad molars had low, rounded cusps arranged in a bilophodont pattern similar to Old World...

Coquerels mouse lemur

Grandidier, 1867), Morondava, Madagascar. French Microcebe de Coquerel German Coquerels-Zwergmaki. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Dense fur, dorsally light brown to grayish brown, ventrally yellowish gray. Tail darkens along its length, becoming dark brown or black at the tip. Large, naked ears. Nails keeled and sharply pointed. Length 8.5 in (21 cm), tail 13 in (33 cm) 11 oz (304 g) for males, 11.5 oz (326 g) for females. Patchy distribution in deciduous forests of...

Lar gibbon

Hylobates lar (Linnaeus, 1771), Malacca, Malaysia. Two subspecies in Thailand and southwest China (H. l. entelloides H. carpenteri, and possibly H. yunnensis) one in the Malay Peninsula (H. l. lar) one in north Sumatra (H. l. vestitus). English Common gibbon, white-handed gibbon French Gibbon lar, gibbon a mains blanches German Weisshand-Gibbon Spanish Gibon de manos blancas. Male size 17.1-23 in (44-59 cm), female 16.5-22.8 in (42-58 cm) male weight 11-16.8 lb (5-7.6 kg), female 9.7-15 lb...

Red mouse lemur

Geoffroy, 1834, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Brown mouse lemur French Microcebe roux German Roter Mausmaki. Dorsal fur dark rufous brown ventral fur white or yellowish white. Pale stripe between the eyes, extending almost to the tip of the snout. Ears medium-sized, rounded, membranous, and mobile. Length 5 in (12.5 cm), tail 5.6 in (14 cm) 1.5 oz (43 g) for both sexes. Occurs throughout the eastern rainforest of Madagascar, from the extreme north to the far south....

Redbellied lemur

Lemur rubriventer Geoffroy, 1850, Tamatave, Madagascar. OTHER COMMON NAMES French L mur a ventre rouge, German Rotbauchlemur, Rot-bauchmaki Spanish Lemur de vientre rojo. Average adult head-and-body length is 15 in (40 cm), with a tail length of 20 in (50 cm) and an adult body weight of 4.5 lb (2 kg). There is some sexual dichromatism. Both sexes have dark brown pelages and black tails, but males have reddish brown undersides (hence the common name) while females differ with cream-white...

Lorises and pottos

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Lorisidae Relatively small, fully arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical and subtropical forests their most prominent features are marked reduction of the tail and of the second digits of the hands and feet, in association with their slow, deliberate locomotion involving powerful grasping Relatively small body size, ranging from the gray slender loris (head and body length 8.5 in, 21.5 cm) tail length virtually zero body mass 9 oz (255 g) to the potto (head...

Info

Varying throughout genera and species. The animals rub ex-hudations from the glands on various spots and objects to mark territory. All lemuridae (and all prosimians) carry grooming combs, modified lower incisors and canines that form a comblike structure that the animals use for grooming themselves and others of their group. Mutual grooming is a social glue, maintaining and reinforcing bonds among the members of a group. The ears are partially furred and not especially prominent, except in...

Dians tarsier

Tarsius dianae Niemitz Nietsch, Warter and Rumpler, 1991. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Tarsier de Dian German Dianakoboldmaki. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 13-13.8 in (33-34.9 cm) 3.4-3.9 oz (95-110g) fur somewhat curly, buff-tinged gray, bright hairs on upper lip tail tuft long and bushy finger and toe nails dark brown and keeled. Central montane areas of Sulawesi. HABITAT Seems to be most abundant in primary rainforest, about 270 individuals per 0.04 mi2 (1 km2). In secondary forest density was...

Southern needleclawed bushbaby

Euoticus elegantulus (Le Conte, 1857), West Africa. In many former classifications, this species included the northern needle-clawed bushbaby as a subspecies, but that form is now recognized as the separate species Euoticus pallidus. French Galago l gant German S dlicher Kielnagelgalago Spanish Abol , galago elegante. Fur bright rufous brown dorsally and gray-white ventrally. Mandibular tooth comb notably elongated relative to other teeth. Nails on fingers and toes are strongly keeled and bear...

For further reading

New York Sinauer, 2001. Alderton, D. Rodents of the World. New York Facts on File, 1996. Alterman, L., G. A. Doyle, and M. K. Izard, eds. Creatures of the Dark The Nocturnal Prosimians. New York Plenum Press, 1995. Altringham, J. D. Bats Biology and Behaviour. New York Oxford University Press, 2001. Anderson, D. F., and S. Eberhardt. Understanding Flight. New York McGraw-Hill, 2001. Anderson, S., and J. K. Jones Jr., eds. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the...

Odobenidae

Circumpolar waters, including the Bering and Chukchi Seas (around Alaska and Russia), the western and eastern Atlantic Ocean (around Canada, Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia), and the Laptev Sea (around Russia) Circumpolar waters, including the Bering and Chukchi Seas (around Alaska and Russia), the western and eastern Atlantic Ocean (around Canada, Greenland, Scandinavia and Russia), and the Laptev Sea (around Russia)

Clouded leopard

Felis nebulosa (Griffith, 1821), China. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Panth re longibande, panth re n buleuse German Nebelparder Spanish Pantera longibanda, pantera nebulosa. Length 24-43 in (60-110 cm) weight 24-44 lb (11-20 kg). Silvery gray to tawny coat, marked with distinctive cloud-shaped ellipses of darker color, edged in black, sometimes with black spots. Large black ovals on limbs and underbelly, two black bars on back of neck. Tail black-ringed, long and large, up to 24-35 in (60-90 cm)....

Conservation

In contrast to certain other mammal groups (e.g., artio-dactyls, bats), no known primate species has become extinct as yet, but it is probably only a question of time. Indeed, a score of lemur species documented only by subfossils died out about 2,000 years ago, following the initial human invasion of Madagascar, so this may have been the first major wave of human-induced primate extinction. As a rough approximation, it can be said that one third of extant primate species are subjected to some...

Dusky titi monkey

Callicebus moloch Hoffmannsegg, 1807, Brazil. OTHER COMMON NAMES Spanish Mono tit , toc n. Head and body length is 13.6-13.7 in (345-348 mm) tail length is 17.0-17.7 in (432-449 mm) and weight is 24.7-42.3 oz (700-1,200 g). Their coat is buffy or grayish agouti with contrasting reddish brown or orange sideburns and under-parts. They possess a long, thickly haired, non-prehensile tail. Amazon basin south of the Amazon River in Brazil. Gallery, swamp, and flooded forests. Lower canopy levels....

Graycheeked mangabey

Lophocebus albigena (Gray, 1850), Mayombe, Zaire. Traditionally, all mangabeys were included in the genus Cercocebus. However, morphological evidence that was subsequently confirmed by molecular data indicated that there are, in fact, two distinct groups that have independently undergone shortening of the face, such that a pronounced hollow (fossa) has developed below each eye socket. Predominantly arboreal mangabeys that are more closely allied to baboons are now allocated to the separate...

Hominidae II

Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Subfamily Homininae Large mammals obligate bipeds largest brain to body size ratio among terrestrial mammals moderate degree of sexual dimorphism species-specific vocal communication (language) obligate reliance on tool behavior and technology complex sociality Variable, depending upon population. Normal adult stature 53.5-72.8 in (136-185 cm) normal adult weight 83.8-198.4 lb (38-90 kg) All terrestrial habitats, aided by domestication of animals...

Hookers sea lion

Phocarctos hookeri (Gray, 1844), Falkland Islands and Cape Horn (in error, actually Auckland Islands). English Auckland sea lion, New Zealand sea lion French Lion de mer de Nouvelle-Z lande German NeuseelandSeelowe Spanish L on marine de Nuevo Zelandia. Males to 992 lb (450 kg), nearly black females to 364 lb (165 kg), light tan in color. Pups of various colors with a light stripe down the nose. Ocean near Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, and other islands near New Zealand. The species breeds...

Pileated gibbon

Hylobates pileatus (Gary, 1861), Cambodia. Monotypic species. English Capped gibbon, crowned gibbon German Kappengibbon Spanish Gibon de cresta negra. Male weight 17-23 lb (7.86-10.45 kg) female 14-19 lb (6.36-8.64 kg). Sexually dichromatic male is black, with white head ring, hands, feet, and preputial tuft female is silvery buff, with black cheeks, cap, and chest young is creamy, turning to gray by subadult. Southeast Thailand and Cambodia (west of Mekong River). HABITAT Evergreen (and...

Moloch gibbon

Hylobates moloch (Audebert, 1798), west Java, Indonesia. Possibly two subspecies in Java. English Javan gibbon, silvery gibbon French Gibbon cendre German Silber-Gibbon, Java-Gibbon Spanish Gibon ceniciento. Weight 12.6 lb (5.7 kg). Monochromatic silvery blue-gray, cap and chest variably darker. Restricted to forest fragments in western half of Java, Indonesia. HABITAT Tropical evergreen rainforest. BEHAVIOR Population density 2.7 groups 2.5 mi2 (km2) home range 42 ac (17 ha), 94 defended as...

Pygmy tarsier

Tarsius pumilus Miller and Hollister, 1921, central Sulawesi. Treated as a spectral tarsier subspecies for many decades, it regained species level by Niemitz in 1985, which was confirmed later by several authors. English Lesser spectral tarsier, mountain tarsier French Tarsier nain German Zwergkoboldmaki Spanish Tarsero piemeno. Head and body length, 3.8-4.1 in (9.5-10.5 cm) Fur color similar to spectral tarsier, but more curly. Considerably smaller than any other tarsier species. Central...

Eurasian lynx

French Lynx German Luchs Spanish Lince. Length 32-51 in (80-130 cm) tail 2-7 in (5-19 cm) weight 17-68 lb (8-31 kg). Light grayish brown coat with dark spots, striped or unpatterned. Black-tipped tail, long, black ear tufts, two tassels on throat. Paws large are padded with thick fur, acting as snowshoes. Western Europe to Siberia, central Asia to Himalayas. HABITAT Cold coniferous forest and thick scrub in Europe and Siberia. Rocky hills and mountains of...

Senegal bushbaby

Geoffroy, 1796, Senegal. Originally included the Moholi bushbaby, which is now recognized as a separate species (Galago moholi). English Northern lesser bushbaby French Galago du S n gal German Senegalgalago. Fur almost pure gray dorsally and yellowish white ventrally. Eyes surrounded by thick, dark eye-rings separated by a pale nasal stripe. Head and body length 6.5 in (16.5 cm) tail length 10.5 in (26 cm). Body mass males 11 oz (315 g) females 9 oz (250 g). Range...

Masked titi

Geoffroy, 1812. OTHER COMMON NAMES Spanish Guigoacute. Head and body length is 12.2-16.5 in (310-420 mm) tail length is 16.5-21.7 in (418-550 mm) and weight is 34.2-58.2 oz (970-1,650 g). They have a black face, hands, and feet. The body is grayish to yellowish or orange, with a long, thickly haired, non-prehensile tail. English Widow monkey, yellow-handed titi Spanish Coton-cillo, mono viudo, tocon, viduita. Diurnal and arboreal. Small territories are defended by vocal...