Species accounts

Banded hare-wallaby

Lagostrophus fasciatus

SUBFAMILY

Sthenurinae

TAXONOMY

Lagostrophus fasciatus (Peron and Lesueur, 1807), Bernier Island, Australia.Two subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Munning; French: Wallaby-lièvre rayé, wallaby-lièvre à bandes; Spanish: Canguro-liebre rayado.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 16-18 in (400-450 mm); tail length 14-16 in (350-400 mm); weight 3-5 lb (1.3-2.1 kg). Small wallaby with dark grizzled gray coat on back and sides featuring distinctive transverse bands from the mid-back to the base of the tail.

DISTRIBUTION

Extinct on Australian mainland; remaining only on Bernier and Dorre Islands.

HABITAT

Extant populations associated with thick low scrub and Triodia grasslands.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary, nocturnal species that sits beneath thick cover during daylight.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Dicotyledonous plants, including malvaceous and leguminous shrubs, represent main food items. Grasses account for less than half the dietary intake.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 12 months; pouch life 180 days. Probably polygynous or promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Lagostrophus fasciatus albipilis: Extinct; Lagostrophus fasciatus fasciatus: Vulnerable.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Significant to Aborigines as food source and included in dreamtime stories. ♦

Agile wallaby

Macropus agilis

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Macropus agilis (Gould, 1842), Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia.

H Wallabia bicolor H Setonix brachyurus H Lagostrophus fasciatus

I Macropus agilis I Macropus rufus

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Sandy wallaby, jungle wallaby.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 23-33 in (593-850 mm); tail length 23-33 in (593-850 mm); weight 20-60 lb (9-27 kg). Sandy-brown color on back and sides, with whitish underside. Distinctive dark head stripe and light thigh stripe.

DISTRIBUTION

Tropical coastal areas of northern Australia and southern New Guinea.

HABITAT

Monsoon woodlands and grasslands. BEHAVIOR

Gregarious, forms groups of up to 10 individuals or more where food is abundant.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds on native grasses and known to excavate roots of some species. Also known to feed on fruits of Leichhardt tree and native figs.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 12 months; gestation period 29 days; pouch life 219 days. Probably promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Important food source to Australian Aborigines and New Guinea natives. Agricultural pest to crops and pastures in some areas. ♦

Eastern gray kangaroo

Macropus giganteus

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Macropus giganteus Shaw, 1790, Queensland, Australia. Two subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Great gray kangaroo, forester.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 38-91 in (958-2,302 mm); tail length 18-43 in (446-1,090 mm); weight 8-146 lb (3.5-66 kg). Males and females are uniformly gray-brown with paler underside. Distinguished from other species by hairy muzzle.

DISTRIBUTION

Eastern Australia, including majority of Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria.

HABITAT

Common throughout distribution in a range of habitats, including grassy woodlands, forest, and open grasslands.

BEHAVIOR

Gregarious and known to occur in large mobs.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feed on grasses and forbs in the early morning and late afternoon.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 18 months; gestation period 36 days; pouch life 320 days. Probably promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Mainland subspecies is highly abundant across distribution.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Subject to commercial harvesting for meal and skins. Presumably was an important food species for Aborigines. ♦

Parma wallaby

Macropus parma

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Macropus parma Waterhouse, 1845, New South Wales, Australia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: White-throated wallaby.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 18-21 in (447-528 mm); tail length 16-21 in (405-544 mm): weight 7-13 lb (3.2-5.9 kg). Grayish brown back and shoulders with characteristic white throat and chest. White stripe on upper cheek and dark dorsal stripe ending mid-back.

DISTRIBUTION

Eastern Australia on Great Dividing Range between the Gibraltar Range and the Watagan Mountains. Introduced to Kawau Island (New Zealand).

HABITAT

Wet and dry sclerophyll forests and occasionally rainforest.

BEHAVIOR

Solitary and nocturnal.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feed on grasses and herbs.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 16 months; gestation period 34 days; pouch life 212 days. May be promiscuous or polygynous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Lower Risk/Near Threatened. Considered at one time to have been driven to extinction, but rediscovered in 1967 and subsequently detected at a number of sites across range.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Considered a pest to forestry operations on Kawau Island. ♦

Red kangaroo

Macropus rufus

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Macropus rufus (Desmarest, 1822), Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Plains kangaroo, blue flier.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 29-55 in (745-1,400 mm); tail length 25-39 in (645-1,000 mm); weight 37-187 lb (17-85 kg). Red-brown to blue-gray above and distinctly white underneath.

DISTRIBUTION

Near continental distribution across arid and semi-arid Australia. Absent from coastal and subcoastal regions of eastern, southern, and northern Australia.

HABITAT

Semi-arid plains, shrublands, grasslands, woodlands, and open forest area.

BEHAVIOR

Crepuscular. Gregarious in small groups, but will form larger groups in response to resource availability.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Grazer, feeding almost exclusively on grasses.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 14-20 months; gestation period 33 days; pouch life 235 days. Estrous cycles in females and sperm production is males show responses to environmental conditions. May be promiscuous or polygynous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened; they have expanded their distribution and population numbers in some areas in response to development of pastures and establishment of artificial water points.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

As one of the largest land mammals in Australia, it is an important cultural symbol for both European and Aborigine Australians. The animal features extensively in Aborigine dreamtime stories. The species is commercially harvested for meat and skins in four states of Australia. ♦

Swamp wallaby

Wallabia bicolor

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest, 1804), locality unknown.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Black wallaby, stinker.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 26-33 in (665-847 mm); tail length 25-34 in (640-862 mm); weight 23-45 lb (10.3-20.3 kg). Dark chocolate brown to black above, grading to a strong red-orange color below.

DISTRIBUTION

Eastern Australia from Cape York to southeast South Australia, extending inland up to 250 mi (400 km) from the coast.

HABITAT

Occupies areas of forest, woodland, and health with a dense understory.

BEHAVIOR

More diurnal than most macropods. Solitary. FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Specialized browser, feeding on foliage of shrubs, ferns, sedges, and some grasses.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 15 months; gestation period 35 days; pouch life 256 days. Probably promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Unattractive to commercial shooters due to small size and coarse fur. Considered a pest to forestry operations in some areas. ♦

Quokka

Setonix brachyurus

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Setonix brachyurus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1830), King George Sound (Albany), Western Australia, Australia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Short-tailed wallaby.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 16-21 in (400-540 mm); tail length 10-12 in (245-310 mm); weight 6-9 lb (2.7-4.2 kg). Generally grizzled gray-brown with reddish tinge. Fur long and thick, which gives coat a shaggy appearance.

DISTRIBUTION

Southwestern Western Australia, including Rottnest Island. HABITAT

Densely vegetated areas of moist forest, heath, and swampy flats.

BEHAVIOR

Nocturnal. Males known to aggressively defend resting sites. Populations living in areas distant from free water may form groups of 25-150 individuals.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Browses and grazes, feeding on grasses, sedges, succulents, and foliage of shrubs.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at eight to nine months; gestation period 27 days; pouch life 190 days. Mainland populations breed year-round, but Rottnest Island population has only a brief breeding season. Probably promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Vulnerable. Declined significantly on mainland during the twentieth century, but has recently recovered in the moister parts of southwest.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

There is major tourist interest in the Rottnest Island quokka population. ♦

Narbalek

Petrogale concinna

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Petrogale concinna Gould, 1842, Wyndham, Western Australia, Australia. Two subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Little rock wallaby.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 11-14 in (290-350 mm); tail length 9-12 in (220-310 mm); weight 2-3 lb (1-1.5 kg). Back and shoulders colored a dull reddish brown, marbled with light gray and black. Tail has a definite black brush tip.

DISTRIBUTION

Northern Australia in Mary and Victoria Rivers district, eastern Arnhem Land, and northwest Kimberley.

HABITAT

Low rocky hills, cliffs, and gorges in savanna grasslands.

BEHAVIOR

Partly diurnal.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds on grasses, sedges, and ferns.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 12-24 months; gestation period 30-32 days; pouch life 180 days. Breeding probably occurs throughout the year. May be promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Lower Risk/Near Threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Brush-tailed rock wallaby

Petrogale penicillata

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Petrogale penicillata (Gray, 1827), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Western rock wallaby.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 20-23 in (510-586 mm); tail length 20-28 in (500-700 mm); weight 11-24 lb (4.9-10.9 kg). Blackish brown above, grading to a reddish chocolate brown on hindquarters; much paler on chest and underside. Black dorsal head stripe and white to buff cheek stripe. Prominent and distinctive dark brushy end.

DISTRIBUTION

Eastern Australia on Great Dividing Range from Grampians in Victoria to Nanago region in Queensland. Successfully introduced onto Oahu Island (Hawaii) and Kawau, Rangitoto, and Motutapu Islands (New Zealand), where in all cases it continues to persist.

HABITAT

Suitable rocky areas in a range of habitats, including rainforest, wet and dry sclerophyll forests, and open woodland.

BEHAVIOR

Gregarious, and shelter by day in caves and deep fissures. Mostly nocturnal, but known to bask in sun on rocky platforms in winter.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

The preferred food is grass but, depending on available habitat and seasonal conditions, significant portions of herbs, browse, and selected fruits are also eaten.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 18 months; gestation period 31 days; pouch life 204 days. In the north of its range, there is a narrow hybrid zone in which there is interbreeding between Petrogale penicillata and the neighboring species, Petrogale her-bertii. Probably promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Vulnerable. The species has declined significantly in Victoria and southern New South Wales, and is considered regionally endangered in both areas. It remains reasonably common in northern New South Wales and Queensland.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Many thousands shot annually for skin trade between 1884 and 1914. In 1908, a single dealer traded a total of 92,590 skins in Sydney. No information available on their significance to Aborigines. ♦

Yellow-footed rock wallaby

Petrogale xanthopus

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Petrogale xanthopus Gray, 1855, Flinders Range, South Australia, Australia. Two subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Ring-tailed rock wallaby.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 19-26 in (480-650 mm); tail length 22-28 in (565-700 mm); weight 13-26 lb (6-12 kg). One of the most strikingly colored and patterned members of the family. Generally a fawn-gray coloration above and white below; ears, forearms, and hind legs distinctly orange' white cheek stripe and white hip stripe. Tail is orange with distinct regular dark bands. Petrogale xanthopus celeris generally paler in general color, and tail markings less distinct than Petrogale xanthopus xanthopus.

DISTRIBUTION

Both subspecies occupy spatially distinct distributions: Petrogale xanthopus xanthopus occurs in western New South Wales and central-eastern ranges of South Australia; Petrogale xanthopus celeris occurs in the ranges of southwestern Queensland.

HABITAT

Semi-arid rangelands, principally in rocky habitats supporting Acacia shrublands.

BEHAVIOR

Gregarious in isolated colonies. Due to extreme temperatures in parts of distribution, they are strictly nocturnal in hotter months. Known to bask in sun on rock platforms during winter.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET Grass, forbs, and browse.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Gestation period 31-32 days; pouch life 194 days. Polygynous.

CONSERVATION STATUS Lower Risk/Near Threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

No specific details known, but presumed to have been significant to inland Aborigines both as a food source and as a component of their dreamtime mythology. ♦

Red-legged pademelon

Thylogale stigmatica

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Thylogale stigmatica (Gould, 1860), Point Cooper, Queensland, Australia. Four subspecies.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Pademelon, northern red-legged pademelon.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 15-21 in (386-536 mm); tail length 12-19 in (301-473 mm); weight 6-15 lb (2.5-6.8 kg). Grizzled gray-brown, with cheeks, shoulders, forearms, and inside of hind legs reddish brown. Underside cream to pale-gray. Some variation in color between subspecies with rainforest forms generally darker.

DISTRIBUTION

Distributed from northeastern New South Wales to far north Queensland and in southern New Guinea.

HABITAT

Rainforest is preferred habitat, but also recorded in wet sclero-phyll forests and deciduous vine-thickets.

BEHAVIOR

Generally a solitary species, but may form feeding aggregations in areas where food resources are abundant. They are diurnally active within dense rainforest cover. Nocturnal activity concentrated on feeding areas that may be in more open habitat.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Browsers, feeding on leaves and fruits of a range of rainforest plants. Known also to graze on grasses and commercial crops at forest edges. There is considerable latitudinal variation in the diet, most likely associated with habitat differences due to climate.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Flashjack, merrin; French: Onychogale bridé; Spanish: Canguro rabipelado oriental.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 18-28 in (450-700 mm); tail length 15-21 in (380-540 mm); weight 9-18 lb (4-8 kg). General body coloration is grizzled ashy gray above and pale gray below. Characteristic white bridled stripe occurs from center of neck to behind the forearms on both sides. There is a horny spur on the end of the tail.

DISTRIBUTION

Formerly widespread through central Queensland, central-western New South Wales, and western Victoria. Range extended from Charters Towers in the north to Lake Hindmarsh in the south. Following a dramatic decline, it is now known only from a single extant population near Dingo in central Queensland, from an reintroduced population on Idalia National Park and Avocet Nature refuge, and from sanctuary populations at Scotia Sanctuary, Genaren Hill Sanctuary, and Western Plains Zoo.

HABITAT

^¿»««-dominated woodlands and shrublands. BEHAVIOR

Nocturnally active, resting during the day under dense shelter. Typically solitary animals, but feeding aggregations of up to six to eight animals are not uncommon.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Generally feed on mixed forbs, grasses, and browse on the edge of dense vegetation used for shelter. Chenopod forbs (plant family Chenopodiaceae) are particularly favored as well as soft-leaved grasses and some malvaceous species.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at 12 months; gestation period 28-30 days; pouch life 180 days. May be promiscuous or polygynous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦

Bridled nail-tailed wallaby

Onychogalea fraenata

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Onychogalea fraenata (Gould, 1841), New South Wales, Australia.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Breeding occurs throughout the year. Females reach sexual maturity at nine months; gestation period 23-26 days; pouch life 119-126 days. Promiscuous species.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Endangered. Subject to major recovery program involving captive breeding and reintroduction to parts of former range. Reintroductions to Idalia National Park and Avocet Nature Refuge have significantly improved the species' conservation status.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Mentioned in the diaries of numerous early explorers in western New South Wales as one of the most abundant kangaroo species they encountered. No specific details of its use by humans, but presumed to have been significant food source and also utilized for its distinctive skin. Recent conservation actions to recovery for this endangered species have served to raise its public profile. ♦

Rufous hare-wallaby

Lagorchestes hirsutus

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Lagorchestes hirsutus Gould, 1844, York district, Western Australia, Australia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Mala, ormala, western hare-wallaby, wurrup; French: Wallaby-lièvre de l'ouest, wallaby-lièvre roux; Spanish: Canguro-liebre peludo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 12-15 in (310-390 mm); tail length 10-12 in (245-305 mm); weight 2-4 lb (0.9-1.8 kg). Uniform sandy-red color; fur on back and hindquarters is long, giving the animal a shaggy appearance.

DISTRIBUTION

Previously extant across central and western desert areas of Australia. Now confined to Bernier and Dorre Islands and experimental reintroductions to large enclosures in Northern Territory and Western Australia, and to Trimouille Island off the Western Australian coast.

HABITAT

Spinifex grasslands.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Critically Endangered. A recovery plan is currently being implemented for the species and includes significant emphasis of captive breeding and reintroduction.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Features prominently in Aborigine dreamtime stories associated with Ayers Rock (Uluru). Also hunted by Aborigines using fire. ♦

Bennett's tree kangaroo

Dendrolagus bennettianus

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Dendrolagus bennettianus De Vis, 1887, Daintree River, Queensland, Australia.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Gray tree kangaroo, dusty tree kangaroo, tcharibbeena; French: Dendrolague de Bennett; Spanish: Canguro arborícola de Bennett.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 27-30 in (690-750 mm); tail length 29-33 in (730-840 mm); weight 18-30 lb (8-14 kg). Color is dark brown, forehead and snout with grayish tinge; rusty brown coloration on shoulders, neck, and back of head.

DISTRIBUTION

Eastern Cape York from the Daintree River to Mt. Amos, and extending west to the Mount Windsor Tablelands.

BEHAVIOR Solitary and nocturnal.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds selectively on grasses, herbs, succulent shrubs, and seeds.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females reach sexual maturity at five months; pouch life 124 days. Capable of producing three offspring per year under good conditions. Probably promiscuous.

HABITAT

Tropical rainforests, vine, and gallery forests. BEHAVIOR

One of the few macropods to defend a discrete territory. Adult males principally solitary, but have home range that overlaps with numerous females.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Feeds mainly on leaves, but takes some fruit when available. REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Females breed annually and exhibit embryonic dipause. Pouch life is approximately 270 days. The young may accompany the mother for up to two years. Probably polygynous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Lower Risk/Near Threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Heavily hunted by Aborigines in lowland forests; highland areas were not often visited by natives due to taboos. ♦

Matschie's tree kangaroo

Dendrolagus matschiei

SUBFAMILY Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Dendrolagus matschiei Forster and Rothschild, 1907, Rawlinson Mountains, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.

OTHER COMMON NAMES English: Huon tree kangaroo.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 16-25 in (412-625 mm); tail length 16-27 in (408-685 mm). Generally wood-brown in color with gold on the tail and limbs. Further distinguished by shorter tail and lack of golden back stripes.

DISTRIBUTION

In Papua New Guinea, confined to the Huon Peninsula and Umboi Island.

HABITAT

Dense mountain forests between 3,300-10,800 ft (1,0003,290 m).

BEHAVIOR

Several studies of captive animals have been completed detailing courtship and mating behavior. Considered to be solitary and crepuscular in wild.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Nothing known.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Breeding can occur at any time of the year in captivity. Gestation period 44 days; pouch life 280 days. Probably promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Endangered.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Hunted by New Guinea natives with the aid of dogs, which chase the tree kangaroos out of the canopy. ♦

Gray dorcopsis

Dorcopsis luctuosa

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Dorcopsis luctuosa (D'Albertis, 1874), southeast of New Guinea.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

None known.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 21-38 in (525-970 mm); tail length 12-15 in (310-388 mm); weight 8-25 lb (3.6-11.5 kg). Generally black/gray coat with a prominent yellow patch around the pouch and cloaca.

DISTRIBUTION

Southern New Guinea from the Mreauke area to Milne Bay. Thought to be locally abundant in the Moresby region.

HABITAT

Lowland rainforest.

BEHAVIOR

Crepuscular. Observations of captive populations suggest they are a social species, living in loosely knit groups that can contain several adult males and females.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Known to feed on a wide range of vegetable matter.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Nothing is known. May be promiscuous.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

No specific details known, but presumed to have been significant food source for New Guinea natives. ♦

Papuan forest wallaby

Dorcopsulus macleayi

SUBFAMILY

Macropodinae

TAXONOMY

Dorcopsulus macleayi (Mikluho-Maclay, 1885), Papua New Guinea.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

English: Macleay's dorcopsis.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 17-18 in (435-460 mm); tail length 12-14 in (315-346 mm); weight 6-7 lb (2.5-3.4 kg). Smaller and more densely furred than species of Dorcopsis. Tail furred for two-thirds to three-quarters of its length.

DISTRIBUTION

Eastern New Guinea, south of Central Cordillera and east of Mount Karimui.

HABITAT

Mid-montane rainforests between 3,300-5,900 ft (1,798 m).

BEHAVIOR

Nothing is known.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Reported to favor the fruit and leaves of Ficus spp., Pangium edule, and Syzgium sp., as well as other trees.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Nothing is known.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Listed as Vulnerable because of the small area it occupies. SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Presumed to have been a significant food source for New Guinea natives. ♦

Common name / Scientific name/ Other common names

Physical characteristics

Habitat and behavior

Distribution

Diet

Conservation status

Antilopine wallaroo Macropus antilopinus English: Antilopine kangaroo

Black wallaroo Macropus bernardus English: Black kangaroo, Bernard's wallaroo

Black-striped wallaby Macropus dorsalis English: Scrub wallaby

Tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii English: Dama wallaby

Western gray kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus English: Black-faced kangaroo, mallee kangaroo, stinker

Whiptail wallaby Macropus parryi English: Prettyface wallaby

Common wallaroo Macropus robustus English: Euro, hill wallaroo

Head and body length 31-47 in (77.8120 cm); tail length 27-35 in (67.989 cm); weight 35-108 lb (16-49 kg). Males reddish-tan, females can be either pale gray or reddish tan, both noticeably paler on underside.

Head and body length 25-29 in (64.672.5 cm); tail length 23-25 in (57.564 cm); weight 29-49 lb (13-22 kg) Males dark-brown to black. Females gray to gray-brown.

Head and body length 21-32 in (53-82 cm); tail length 29-33 in (74-83 cm); weight 13-44 lb (6-20 kg). Pelage is medium brown above with a distinctive mid-back stripe from the neck to the base of the tail. Generally paler on sides and white underside.

Head and body length 20-27 in (52-68 cm); tail length 13-18 in (33-45 cm); weight 9-22 lb (4-10 kg). Grizzled dark gray-brown above tending to red-brown on the sides. Paler gray-brown underside.

Head and body length 38-88 in (97.1222.5 cm); tail length 17-39 in (44.3100 cm); weight 10-118 lb (4.5-53.5 kg).

Head and body length 30-36 in (75.592.4 cm); tail length 29-41 in (72.8104.5 cm); weight 15-57 lb (7-26 kg). General body color light gray to brownish gray. Distinctive facial markings including dark brown coloration of forehead and bases of ears, white ear tips, and white cheek stripe.

Head and body length 44-78 in (110.7198.6 cm); tail length 21-35 in (53.490.1 cm); weight 14-103 lb (6.346.5 kg). Significant color and size differences across distribution. Varies from dark gray to reddish above, paler below. Fur is distinctly shaggy in appearance.

Monsoonal forests and woodlands. Gregarious, occuring in groups of 3-8. Births occur throughout the year. Gestation period 34 days. Pouch life 269 days.

Woodland and grassland habitats on steep rocky escarpments and plateau tops. Solitary, no more than 3 adults ever seen together. Nocturnal.

Forested country with a dense shrub layer including the margins of vinescrubs, rainforests, and brigalow scrubs. Social species sheltering by day in groups of up to 20 animals. Nocturnal. Females reach sexual maturity at 14 months. Gestation period 33-35 days. Pouch life 210 days.

Low dense vegetation for shelter including coastal scrub, heath, dry sclerophyll forests, and mallee thickets. No social grouping observed. Nocturnal. Females reach sexual maturity at 8 months. Gestation period 29 days. Pouch life 250 days.

Common throughout distribution in a range of habitats including grassy woodlands, forest and open grasslands. Gregarious and known to occur in large "mobs." One of femacropod species confirmed as not employing embyonic dipause. Females reach sexual maturity at 14 months. Gestation period 31 days. Pouch life 310 days.

Open forests and grassland in undulating and hilly areas. Detailed studies completed of social ethology. Social species living in groups of up to 50 individuals. Females reach sexual maturity at 24 months. Gestation period 36 days. Pouch life 275 days.

Diverse habitats across distribution but usually features steep escarpments, stony rises, or rocky hills. Mostly solitary and crepuscular. Females reach sexual maturity at 15 months. Gestation period 33 days. Pouch life 231-270 days.

Tropical northern Australia.

Northern Territory, western and central Arnhem Land in Australia.

Feeds almost entirely on grass.

Grazing animal. No details of preferred species.

Eastern Australia Feeds predominantly on bounded approximately native and introduced by Dubbo, Blackall, and pastures. Charters Towers.

Mixed herbivorous diet including browsed and grazed species. Able to drink saltwater.

Eastern Australia from south of Cooktown in Queensland to Dorrigo in northern New South Wales.

Almost continental distribution in Australia, excluding extreme south of Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and western Cape York.

Not threatened

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Not threatened

Coastal areas in southwest Western Australia and southern South Australia. Also from islands including Abrolhos, Garden, St Peter, Flinders, and Kangaroo Islands.

Southern Australia Feeds predominantly on including southern parts grass species.

of Western Australia and South Australia and western portions of

Victoria and New South

Wales. Northeastern distribution extends slightly into

Queensland.

Two subspecies Lower Risk/Near Threatened; one subspecies Extinct in the Wild

Kangaroo Island subspecies is Lower Risk/Near Threatened; mainland subspecies is not threatened

Feeds predominantly on grasses and other herbaceous plants, including ferns.

Grazes primarily on grasses and shrubs. Well adapted to an arid environment and can survive on low protein food and without free-flowing water.

Not threatened

One subspecies is Vulnerable; three subspecies are not threatened

[continued]

Common name / Scientific name/ Other common names

Physical characteristics

Habitat and behavior

Distribution

Diet

Conservation status

Red-necked wallaby Macropus rufogriseus English (Tasmania): Bennett's wallaby

Allied rock-wallaby Petrogale assimilis English: Torrens creek rock-wallaby

Doria's tree kangaroo Dendrolagus dorianus English: Unicolored tree kangaroo

Lumholtz's tree kangaroo Dendrolagus lumholtzi

White-striped dorcopsis Dorcopsis hageni

Brown dorcopsis Dorcopsis veterum

Lesser forest wallaby Dorcopsulus vanheurni English: Little dorcopsis

Head and body length 26-36 In (65.992.3 cm); tall length 25-34 In (62.387.6 cm); weight 24-59 lb (11-26.8 kg). Grizzled gray to reddish coat above which Is noticeably paler In females. Neck and shoulders with pronounced reddish brown coloration. Tasmanian subspecies overall darker in color.

Head and body length 18-23 In (44.559 cm); tall length 16-22 In (40.9-55 cm); weight 9-10 lb (4.3-4.7 kg). Mostly gray-brown above and paler underneath but subject to variation according to type of rock on which population exists.

Head and body length 20-31 in (51.578 cm); tail length 18-26 in (44.566 cm); weight 10-32 lb (4.5-14.5 kg). Somber brown coat and a paler, shorter tail (77-80% of head and body length) distinguishes it from other tree kangaroo species.

Head and body length 20-26 in (52-65 cm); tail length 26-29 in (65.5-73.6 cm); weight 11-19 lb (5.1-19 kg).

Head and body length 17-24 in (42.560 cm); tail length 12-15 in (31.5-37.8 cm); weight 11-13 lb (5-6 kg). Similar in coloration to D. veterum. Distinguished by the presence of a single white dorsal stripe running from the rump to the crown.

Head and body length 24-30 in (60-77 cm); tail length 18-21 in (46.5-53.5 cm); weight 11 lb (5 kg). Light to dark brown in color and lacking the distinctive dorsal stripe characteristic of D. hageni

Head and body length 12-18 In (31.544.6 cm); tall length 9-16 In (22.5-40.2 cm); weight 3-5 lb (1.5-2.3 kg). Smallest of the New Guinea macropods distinguished from nearest congenor Dorcopsulus macleayi by a greater portion of the tail being naked.

Eucalypt forests. Solitary, but feeding aggregations of up to 30 animals can be seen grazing together at night. Females reach sexual maturity at 11-21 months. Gestation period 29 days. Pouch life 270 days. Tasmanian subspecies has a distinctly seasonal pattern of births.

Rocky clifflines and escarpments with open forest. Detailed behavioral studies suggest complex hierarchies exist in local populations. Some evidence of pair-bonding from observational studies. Females reach sexual maturity at 18 months. Gestation period 30-32 days. Pouch life 180-210 days.

Montane rainforest between 2,000 ft and 10,800 ft (6103,290 m). Social organization has been studied in captivity suggesting that Dendrolagus dorianus is a highly social species, living in one-male groups in which the male is dominant. This study also reported details of vocalizations, social playing, and mother-young interactions.

Montane rainforests. Nocturnal. Generally a solitary animal but feeding aggregations of up to four animals have been observed. Detailed observations of behavior have been recorded from captive animals. Pouch life 230 days.

Mixed alluvial forest. Partly diurnal. No other details known.

Low altitude rainforests. No specific details known about behavior.

Montane rainforests. No specific details known about behavior.

Essentially a grazing animal, feeding on grasses and herbs.

Not threatened

Southeastern Australia from Mt. Gambier in the south following the coast line to slightly north of Rockhampton. Subspecies occur on Tasmanian and Bass Strait Islands.

Northeastern Queens- Forbs and browse form Not threatened land, Australia, bounded major part of the diet. by Home Hill, Croydon, Grasses, fruits, seeds, and Hughenden. Also occurs on Magnetic and Palm Islands.

and flowers are also eaten.

Central highlands and southeast mountains of Irian Jaya/New Guinea.

Observed to feed on the leaves of Asplenium-like epiphytic ferns at a sancuary in New Guinea.

Vulnerable

Southeastern Cape Primarily a leaf eater. York, Australia, between Known to feed on

Lower Risk/Near Threatened

Kirrama and Mount Spurgeon.

ribbonwood, wild tobacco (introduced), and some rainforest fruits.

Restricted to lowlands of northern New Guinea between Mamberamo and Lae.

Lowlands of Irian Jaya, as far east as Danau Biru in the north, and the Setakwa/Mimika Rivers district in the south. Offshore islands of Misool, Salawatti, and Yapen.

Central Cordillera and the Huon Peninsula on Irian Jaya/New Guinea.

Reported by indigenous hunters to feed on cockroaches and other invertebrates, which it sources from under rocks on river banks.

Diet consists of roots, leaves, and grasses.

Not threatened

Not threatened

The regrowth plant Rungia klossii is reported as a favored food.

Not threatened

Resources

Books

Dawson, T. J. Kangaroos: The Biology of the Largest Marsupials. Kensington, Australia: University of New South Wales Press/Ithaca, 2002.

Flannery, T. F. Mammals of New Guinea. 2nd ed. Chatswood, Australia: Reed Books, 1995.

Grigg, G. C., P. J. Jarman, and I. D. Hume. Kangaroos, Wallabies and Rat-kangaroos. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty and Sons, 1989.

Maxwell, S., A. A. Burbidge, and K D. Morris. The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SCC Australasian Marsupial and Monotreme Specialist Group, Wildlife Australia, 1996.

Menkhorst, P. W. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Ramono, W. S., and S. V. Nash. "Conservation of Marsupials and Monotremes in Indonesia." In Australasian Marsupials and Monotremes, An Action Plan for Their Conservation, edited by Michael Kennedy. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN/SSC

Australasian Marsupials and Monotreme Specialist Group, 1992.

Strahan, R. The Mammals of Australia. 2nd ed. Sydney: Reed New Holland, 2002.

Periodicals

Burbidge, A. A., K. A. Johnson, P. F. Fuller, and R. I.

Southgate. "Aboriginal Knowledge of the Mammals of the Central Deserts of Australia." Australian Wildlife Research, 15 (1988): 9-39.

Organizations

Environment Australia. John Gorton Building, King Edward Terrace, Parkes, Australian Capital Territory 2600 Australia. Phone: (2) 6274 1111. Fax: 61 2 6274 1666. Email: [email protected] Web site: <http://www.ea.gov.au>

Other

Kangaroos—Faces in the Mob, Videotape. Green Cape Pty. Ltd., Sydney, New South Wales, 1993.

Geoff Lundie-Jenkins, PhD

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