Because it sometimes transmits rabies to livestock, the common vampire is the most notorious phyllostomid bat. It has been estimated that 100,000 or more cattle die annually, at a cost of $40 million, as a result of vampire-transmitted rabies in Latin America. On the other hand, other phyl-lostomid bats can have an important positive impact on humans through their pollination and seed dispersal activities. Many of the market fruits in both the New and Old World tropics are bat-dispersed species. Sisal and tequila plants originally relied on phyllostomids bats for their pollination. Forest regeneration resulting from seed dispersal and enhanced fruit and seed set resulting from pollination are two of the beneficial ecosystem services provided by phyllosto-mid bats.
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