Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), Suriname.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
Head and body length 1.9-2.8 in (48-70 mm); tail 0.3-0.6 in (8-16 mm); forearm 1.6-1.8 in (41-45 mm); weight 0.5-0.9 oz (15-25 g); upper body dark brown with silvery wash, lower body lighter brown.
Southern Mexico to Paraguay and southern Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, and Grenada.
Tropical forests of all kinds, mostly in the lowlands. Roosts in many sites, including caves, hollow trees, mines, culverts, and abandoned houses.
One of the most common bats in Latin America. Roosts contain dozens to a few thousand individuals. A relatively sedentary bat, but in western Costa Rica, females make seasonal altitudinal migrations.
Mostly a fruit-eater but also visits flowers opportunistically and eats insects. Individuals forage within about 1.2 mi (2 km) of their day roost. Harvests one fruit at a time and eats it in a sheltered night roost. Feeds selectively on fruits of understory shrubs (especially Piper and Vismia) and early successional trees.
Polyestrous; females give birth to a single young twice a year (March-April and July-August in Central America); gestation period is about four months. Degree of synchrony of births is relatively low within populations. Mating system involves harem-polygyny with single males defending groups of up to about 20 females. Most adult males in a roost are bachelors. Sexes usually do not segregate during the maternity period.
Not threatened. Thrives in disturbed habitats but is vulnerable to roost destruction.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Important seed disperser that helps to promote tropical forest regeneration resulting from natural or human disturbances. ♦
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