Physical characteristics

Kitti's hog-nosed bat is so small that it is considered to be the smallest mammal in the world, and for this reason, it is also known as the bumblebee bat. It weighs between 0.7 oz and 0.9 oz (2.0 and 2.6 g). The tail is absent, although there are two caudal vertebrae. There is a large interfemoral membrane but no calcar. The snout is thickened and there are two clearly defined, crescent-shaped, hog-like nostrils. The eyes are minute and largely concealed by hair. The ears are large, with well-defined but rounded tips; they are not connected to one another and each has a well-developed tragus. In males, there is a large glandular swelling on the lower part of the throat; in females it is less developed or absent. The wings are relatively long and broad, their structure similar to those of bats in the superfamily Rhinolophoidea (slit-faced bats, false vampires, horseshoe, and leaf-nosed bats). The hairs on the back are light buffy brown. They are slightly paler on the belly. In the skull, the braincase is inflated, with a prominent sagittal crest and enlarged tympanic bullae. The premaxillae are a unique character of the family. They are not fused with the maxillae but form a separate ring-like structure. There are 28 teeth. There is one

Kitti's hog-nosed bat (Craseonycteris thonglongyai). (Illustration by Jonathan Higgins)

pair of upper and two pairs of lower incisors, one pair of upper and lower canines; one pair of upper and two pairs of lower premolars and three pairs of upper and lower premolars. When hunting, Kitti's hog-nosed bat uses 3.5 ms long multiharmonic constant frequency (CF) search signals with a prominent second harmonic at 73 kHz repeated at around 22 Hz. This can be used to acoustically indentify the bats.

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