Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767), Suriname.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
Head and body length 4.1-4.9 in (103-124 mm); tail 0.4-1.1 in (10-29 mm); forearm 3.1-3.7 in (80-93 mm); weight 2.8-3.9 oz (78-110 g); upper body is dark brown or reddish brown, lower body is somewhat paler.
Honduras to Paraguay and southeastern Brazil, and Trinidad.
Lowland tropical forests; roosts in caves, hollow trees, culverts, and abandoned buildings.
Relatively sedentary and nonmigratory; roosts in colonies of dozens to thousands of individuals. Females communicate with harem-mates by giving audible screeching calls.
Omnivorous and eats insects (beetles), small vertebrates (reptiles, mammals), nectar, and pollen (especially Ochroma), and fruit (especially Cecropia). Individuals forage within 6.2 mi (10 km) of their roosts; female harem-mates may forage in groups but not with their harem males. Different groups of females within a roost forage in different areas.
Monestrous and polygynous, with mating and birth being quite synchronous within a roost. Births occur in April or May. Mating system is harem-polygynous with single harem males defending groups of up to about 20 females. Female harem composition is very stable with most individuals remaining together their entire lives. Recently weaned females form new social groups and do not join groups of older females. Harem male turnover rates are relatively high.
Not threatened. Widespread and locally common to uncommon; vulnerable to cave disturbance and habitat fragmentation.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Important pollinator and seed-disperser of certain tropical trees. ♦
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