Geoffroys tailless bat

Anoura geoffroyi

SUBFAMILY

Glossophaginae

TAXONOMY

Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

OTHER COMMON NAMES

None known.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 2.3-2.9 in (58-73 mm); forearm 1.6-1.8 in (40-45 mm); weight 0.5-0.6 oz (13-18 g); upper body dull brown with a silvery wash, lower body is gray-brown.

DISTRIBUTION

Mexico to southeastern Brazil and northwestern Argentina, and Trinidad.

HABITAT

Relatively common in tropical forests, especially at mid-montane elevations; occurs from 820-8,200 ft (250-2,500 m) above sea level. Roosts in caves and tunnels.

BEHAVIOR

Forms relatively small colonies of 100 individuals or fewer. Likely to undergo seasonal altitudinal migrations.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Although it frequently visits flowers of trees, shrubs, and epiphytes, it routinely eats many insects and occasionally eats fruit. Often visits more than one species of flower during a foraging bout. Efficiently digests pollen and prefers sucrose nectar

to equicaloric solutions of fructose and glucose in lab trials. A related species (A. caudifer) flies for about five hours and for about 43 mi (70 km) while foraging each night.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Monestrous; babies are born late in the year, during or just before the dry season, on Trinidad. Laboratory studies show that the seasonal male testicular cycle follows an endogenous rhythm that is not regulated by photoperiod. Mating system unknown but likely involves some form of polygyny since bats roost in small clusters in their roosts. Females form maternity roosts separate from males prior to giving birth. Young grow rapidly and are weaned by five to six weeks of age.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Vulnerable to roost disturbance and habitat destruction, but its numbers are currently high in many locations and it is not considered threatened.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS Pollinates tropical plants. ♦

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Head and body length 2.6-3.4 in (67-86 mm); forearm 2.1-2.2 in (53-57 mm); weight 0.7-1.0 oz (20-27 g); upper body reddish brown, lower body cinnamon. Moderately elongated snout and small nose leaf.

DISTRIBUTION

Southern Arizona and New Mexico to El Salvador, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, and adjacent Colombia and Venezuela.

HABITAT

Relatively common in semiarid and arid habitats in Mexico and the southwestern United States; more common in lowlands than in montane drylands where it is replaced by its sister species, L. nivalis. Roosts in caves and mines; is a hot cave bat.

BEHAVIOR

A very colonial bat forming colonies containing tens to hundreds of thousands of individuals. Not highly social (no al-logrooming or food-sharing) in day roosts. Many populations are highly migratory; latitudinal and altitudinal migrations are known.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Highly specialized flower visitor that subsists on nectar and pollen during the maternity season; also eats fruit but rarely insects. Feeds heavily on flowers of columnar cacti and paniculate agaves, when available. Also visits flowers of tropical trees and shrubs. Wide-ranging forager that spends about five hours in flight and flies about 62 mi (100 km) each night; sometimes commutes 12.4-18.6 mi (20-30 km) from day roosts to feeding areas. Although it leaves its day roost at sunset, it visits flowers mostly between midnight and 2 A.M. Sometimes forages in small groups of two to four when visiting cactus and agave

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