New Zealand short-tailed bat populations have been negatively affected by introduced species such as rats, stoats, and cats, which prey on them in roosts and while foraging. They are particularly vulnerable because they forage on the ground and may occupy roosts accessible to predators. The introduction of rats to islands occupied by greater New Zealand short-tailed bats is likely to have resulted in their extinction. Destruction of native forests also threatens these bats, as they rely on native trees for roost sites and food.
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