Reproductive biology

Few courtship behaviors have been observed in sloths, and males and females remain together only for the length of time required to mate several times. Females have a simplex uterus and give birth to a single young, born fully furred, and with eyes open or soon open, that can hang onto it's mother's fur shortly after birth. The mother carries the baby continuously for six months, nursing it but also allowing it to feed on leaves by which it learns the mother's feeding preferences prior to...

Potoroidae

Class Mammalia Order Diprotodontia Family Potoroidae Small- to medium-sized marsupials that generally hop like kangaroos they have an elongated tail females have a pouch with four teats and usually have one young 6-12 in (15-30 cm) 1.3-8 lb (500-3,000 g) Forest and open woodland Conservation status Extinct 2 species Critically Endangered 1 species Endangered 2 species Vulnerable 1 species Lower Risk Conservation Dependent 1 species Lower Risk Near Threatened 1 species Mainly coastal Australia...

Feeding ecology and diet

The combination of small size and high metabolic rates means that bats consume enormous quantities of food. The heart of a flying little brown bat beats about 1,200 times a minute, reflecting the rate at which it burns energy. The same bat, having landed, has a heartbeat rate of less than 300 per minute. During seasons when they are active, little brown bats (like other bats) eat about half their weight in food every night. Nightly, fruit-eating bats may handle three times their weight in food....

Introduction Mammals

Bats are nocturnal, coming out at night. They are the only mammals capable of true (meaning, flapping) flight, because the other so-called flying mammals (for example, squirrels, lemurs, and sugar gliders) glide, they do not fly. Today, the diversity of bats is astonishing, with more than 1,000 species making them second only to rodents as the most diverse group of mammals. Although some bats have remarkable faces and behavior, wings are the most conspicuous features of the flying bats. Upon...

Evolution and systematics

Choloepus Didactylus

Evolved in South America, this diverse order first appears in the fossil record in the Paleocene, about 60 million years ago (mya). It has two main groups, the Pilosa and the Cin-gulata. The Pilosa contains sloths and anteaters, also known as the hairy xenarthrans, and the Cingulata includes the extinct glyptodonts and armadillos, the animals with bony carapaces. The group name Xenarthra refers to the additional articulations between the lumbar vertebrae, called xe-narthrous processes. These...

Physical characteristics

Characteristics Mammals

The size of living insectivores ranges from a small mouse to a large house cat. Savi's pygmy shrew Suncus etruscus , is believed by many scientists to be the world's smallest living mammal weighing 0.04-0.10 oz 1.2-2.7 g and measuring 1.4-2.1 in 36-53 mm without the tail. The 1998 discovery of a 65 million year old fossil jaw measuring 0.3 in 8 mm and belonging to the extinct Batonodoides, suggests that some prehistoric insectivore mammals were even tinier than some Savi's pygmy shrew. The...

Black flying fox

Pteropus alecto Temminck, 1837, Sulawesi, Indonesia. English Pygmy fruit bat, gray fruit bat. Head and body length 19-28 cm , forearm 6-7.5 in 15-19 cm , wingspan up to 3.3 ft 1 m weight 1.1-2.2 lb 500-1,000 g . The fur on the head is black, the mantle ranges from chocolate brown to reddish brown, and white hairs frequently appear over the body, including the underside. Sulawesi, Salayer Island, Baweam and Kangean islands to the Java Sea, Lombok, Sumba and Savu islands, southern New Guinea,...

Species accounts

Ailurops ursinus Temminck, 1824 , Sulawesi, Indonesia. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Barenkuskus. A large and powerful phalanger up to 22 lb 10 kg , with long limbs and black fur often tipped with yellow. A. u. ursinus lowlands of Sulawesi, Peleng, and some adjacent smaller islands and A. u. togianus Togian Islands. Lowland and mid-elevation rainforest. BEHAVIOR Generally occurs in groups of two to four individuals. It is arboreal, living and feeding in the forest canopy, and may be active at any...

Hypsiprymnodontidae

The one living species is a small, quadrupedally bounding animal with a sparsely haired tail, slender head, and dark chocolate-brown fur the hindfoot has four toes the third premolar is long and serrated sectorial Head and body length, 5.9-10.6 in 15-27 cm tail length 4.7-6.3 in 12-16 cm weight, 12.6-24 oz 360-680 g Musky rat-kangaroo Hypsiprymnodon moschatus . Illustration by John Megahan The Hypsiprimnodontidae are considered to be the most basic group of Macropodoidea, on account of their...