Insectvora [Order

Erinaceidae Family Atelerix Genus A. albiventris Species A. algirus A. frontalis A. sclateri Erinaceus Genus E. amurensis Species E. concolor E. europaeus Hemiechinus Genus H. aethiopicus Species H. auritus H. collaris H. hypomelas H. micropus H. nudiventris Mesechinus Genus M. dauuricus Species M. hughi Echinosorex Genus E. gymnura Species Hylomys Genus H. hainanensis Species H. sinensis H. suillus Podogymnura Genus P. aureospinula Species P. truei Chrysochloridae Family Amblysomus Genus A....

Sebas shorttailed bat

Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), Suriname. Head and body length 1.9-2.8 in (48-70 mm) tail 0.3-0.6 in (8-16 mm) forearm 1.6-1.8 in (41-45 mm) weight 0.5-0.9 oz (15-25 g) upper body dark brown with silvery wash, lower body lighter brown. Southern Mexico to Paraguay and southern Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, and Grenada. Tropical forests of all kinds, mostly in the lowlands. Roosts in many sites, including caves, hollow trees, mines, culverts, and abandoned houses. One of the most common...

Physical characteristics

All members of this group have elongated snouts and a thin tongue that is capable of extending outward to a length greater than the length of the head. They have a tubular mouth with lips but they do not have teeth. They also have large curved foreclaws that are used to tear open ant and termite mounds. The powerful foreclaws can also be used as lethal weapons for defense. All but one species has a grasping prehensile tail. The Northern anteaters (Tamandua mexicana) live in trees. (Photo by...

Rufous horseshoe bat

Rhinolophus rouxii Temminck, 1835, Pondicherry and Calcutta, India. Head and body length 1.7-2.6 in (4.2-6.6 cm) tail 0.8-1.3 in (2.1-3.3 cm) forearm 1.7-2.1 in (4.4-5.3 cm) weight 0.5-0.6 oz (14-16.5 g). Fur soft and silky, color variable, from orange to russet brown or buffy brown. Nepal, India, and Sri Lanka to southeastern China and Vietnam. Forested regions in higher rainfall areas. Roosts in caves, tunnels, hollow trees, wells, and buildings. Colonies vary from a few to several hundred...

Brown longeared bat

Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758), Sweden. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Whispering bat French Oreillard brun German Braunes Langohr Spanish Orejudo septentrional. Adults range from 1.5 to 2 in (3.7-5 cm) in length, 0.18-0.42 oz (5-12 g) in weight, and 1.3-1.7 in (3.4-4.2 cm) in forearm length. Medium-sized, light-brown bat that rests with its long ears curled along its body or hidden beneath the wings. When outstretched, the ears are almost as long as the bat's body. Throughout all but far...

Lesser New Zealand shorttailed bat

Mystacina tuberculata Gray, 1843, New Zealand. Three subspecies are recognized. English Lesser short-tailed bat, northern short-tailed bat, New Zealand long-eared bat. The smallest of the New Zealand short-tailed bats. Total length is 2.3-2.6 in (60-68 mm) forearm length 1.5-1.7 in (40-45 mm) wingspan 11-11.4 in (280-290 mm) weight 0.38-0.52 oz (11-15 g) (up to 0.65 oz 18.5 g in pregnant females). There is considerable variation in size among the three subspecies, with body size increasing...

Behavior

Like many marsupials, the majority of diprotodonts are primarily nocturnal or at least crepuscular, but most macrop-ods will sometimes move about in daylight, especially under the cover of forest of scrub. A good many nocturnal species will also emerge by day to bask in the sun, especially early in the morning when the warmth helps them to digest the rewards of a night's foraging. Basking is an important part of the energy efficient lifestyle of wombats, koalas, and kangaroos. Only one species...

Significance to humans

Burrowing moles are perhaps best known to humans for their tunnels, which are the bane of gardeners and farmers, as well as homeowners who desire a perfect lawn. Few realize that mole activities help turn over and aerate the soil, or that they feed on a considerable quantity of harmful insects, particularly beetle larvae and slugs. An American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii) foraging. (Photo by R. Wayne Van Devender. Reproduced by permission.) An American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii)...

Burramyidae

Class Mammalia Order Diprotodontia Family Burramyidae Small omnivores insectivores, characterized by low-crowned molars with rounded cusps, reduced premolars, and reduced digital pads Head and body length 2.7-5 in (7-13 cm), tail 1.5-6.3 in (4-16 cm) weight 0.2-1.4 oz (6-40 g) Forests, woodlands, and subalpine meadows Fossils of pygmy possums have been found in central Australia, northern Queensland, and western Victoria, since the beginning of the Miocene (i.e., approximately 20-25 million...

Conservation status

The lesser bilby has been declared Extinct. Listed as Vulnerable under both IUCN criteria and Australian legislation, the greater bilby now exists in small, fragmented populations over about a fifth of its former range. Competition for food and nesting burrows with introduced rabbits and predation by introduced foxes are significant factors in the species' decline. Feral cats have also depleted numbers. Intensive cattle and sheep farming have limited available habitat through changes in...

Terrestrial tree shrew

Tupaia tana Raffles, 1821, Sumatra, Indonesia. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Toupaie terrestre. Head and body length 8.5 in (22 cm) tail length 7 in (18 cm). Body mass 7 oz (198 g). Large-bodied. Fur dark rufous brown dorsally and orange-red or rusty red ventrally. Well-marked, pale yellowish stripe present on each shoulder and a conspicuous dark brown to black midline streak along the back. Anteriorly, this dorsal stripe is fainter and highlighted by pale areas on either side. Tail bushy and...

Feeding ecology and diet

In all species, the predominant diet is shoots and leaves of forest trees. Sloths feed on Cecropia, the most abundant tree of the Amazonia forest. Regenerating agricultural land river margins and natural gaps may sometimes be important (despite the biting ants that swarm in the tree's hollow stems), but it is never the sole food source. The idea that Bradypus sloths feed only on Cecropia probably arises because an open growth form makes a sloth in a Cecropia easier to see than in almost any...

Harpy fruit bat

Harpyionycteris whiteheadi Thomas, 1896, Mindoro Island, Philippines. German Whitehead-Spitzzahn-Flughund. Head and body length, 5.5-6 in (14-15.3 cm) forearm length, 3.2-3.6 in (8.2-9.2 cm) no tail weight, 2.9-5 oz (83-142 g). Pelage is chocolate to dark brown, ventrum is lighter. Differs from all other fruit bats in its dental structure. The molars have 5-6 cusps, the lower canines have three cusps, and the incisors are directed forward. Undisturbed primary rainforest and lower montane forest...

Trident leafnosed bat

Asellia tridens (Geoffroy, 1813), Egypt. Medium-sized bats. Total body length 1.8-4.2 in (46-62 mm) forearm length 1.7-2.0 in (45-52 mm) tail length 0.7-2.0 in (18-27 mm) weight 0.2-0.35 oz (6-10 g). Fur coloration varies considerably, ranging from pale yellow to buffy gray and orange-brown, membranes are slightly darker, and the large ears and face are pale. The nose leaf is distinctive, having a large leaf behind the nostrils, with three toothed projections. Found throughout Africa north of...

Pseudocheiridae

Class Mammalia Order Diprotodontia Family Pseudocheiridae Medium-sized possums, most species rather slow-moving, with short limbs their teeth, particularly molars, have selenodent (i.e., half-moon shaped) crests, ideal for cutting and grinding leaves ears are small and furred, fur color is mostly brown or gray with the last part of the (prehensile) tail more or less hairless 12.6-37.4 in (320-950 mm), 4.1-79.4 (115-2250 g) Forests and woodlands, suburban areas Vulnerable 3 species Lower Risk...

Parnells moustached bat

Phyllodia parnellii (Gray, 1843), Jamaica. Nine subspecies are currently recognized, four occurring in the West Indies. OTHER COMMON NAMES Spanish Murcielago bigotudo. Smaller, medium-sized bats with forearms ranging from 2.2 to 2.5 in (5.5-6.3 cm), and weighing 0.4-0.9 oz (12-26 g). Found throughout the Greater Antilles, and in the mainland of Central America from southern Sonora and Tamaulipas, the south of Mexico to northern South America east of the Andes. They also occur in northern...

Reproductive biology

The polyestrous females are physiologically capable of producing litters at any time of the year, although in some areas rainfall and food availability are limiting factors. Bilbies are polygynous. After mating with a socially dominant male, the female undergoes a gestation of just 14 days, then gives birth to one to three young. No more than a centimeter in length, the newborn young crawl into the backward-facing pouch, where they will remain suckling on a choice of eight teats for the next 80...

Eastern mole

Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus, 1758), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Sixteen subspecies. French Taupe a queue glabre German Ostamerikanischer Maulwurf Spanish Topo de agua. Adults range from 5.9-7.9 in (15.0-20.0 cm) in total length, and 0.8-1.5 in (2.0-3.8 cm) in tail length. Adults generally weigh 3.2-5.0 oz (90-143 g). On average, males are slightly larger than females. An often glistening, stocky mole with brownish gray, sometimes black fur. It has a short, hairless tail, and...

Starnosed mole

Condylura cristata (Linnaeus, 1758), Pennsylvania, United States. Two subspecies. French Condylure etoile German Sternmull Spanish Topo de nariz estrellada. Adults range from 6.1-8.1 in (15.5-20.5 cm) in total length, and 2.2-3.5 in (5.5-8.8 cm) in tail length. Adults weigh 1.1-3.0 oz (30-85 g). Males and females are similar. Brownish black, silky-furred mole with wide, shovel-like hands, distinctive tentacles surrounding the nostrils. The 22 fleshy tentacles are short and pink. A North...

Savis pygmy shrew

Suncus etruscus (Savi, 1822), Pisa, Italy. OTHER COMMON NAMES English Pygmy white-toothed shrew French Pachyure etrusque, musaraigne etrusque German Etruskerspizmaus. Head and body length 1.4-2.1 in (3.6-5.3 cm) tail 0.8-1.2 in (2.1-3 cm). One of smallest mammals in the world smallest in Europe. Grayish brown dorsal side, blackish brown or ash-gray ventral side. Ears clearly visible. Thirty completely white teeth. Individual long hairs on the tail. Mediterranean to India and Sri Lanka. Includes...

Pentailed tree shrew

Ptilocercus lowii Gray, 1848, Sarawak, Malaysia. OTHER COMMON NAMES French Ptilocerque German Federschwanzspitzhornchen. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Head and body length 5 in (13 cm) tail length 4.5 in (11 cm). Body mass 1.5 oz (43 g). Small-bodied. Fur dark gray dorsally and pale gray or buff ventrally. Dark facial stripe extends from the snout to behind the eye on each side. No shoulder stripe present. Short snout upper incisors enlarged. Eyes more forward-facing than in other tree shrews but...

Potoroidae

Gilberts Potoroo Birth

Class Mammalia Order Diprotodontia Family Potoroidae Small- to medium-sized marsupials that generally hop like kangaroos they have an elongated tail females have a pouch with four teats and usually have one young 6-12 in (15-30 cm) 1.3-8 lb (500-3,000 g) Forest and open woodland Conservation status Extinct 2 species Critically Endangered 1 species Endangered 2 species Vulnerable 1 species Lower Risk Conservation Dependent 1 species Lower Risk Near Threatened 1 species Mainly coastal Australia...

Introduction Mammals

Bats are nocturnal, coming out at night. They are the only mammals capable of true (meaning, flapping) flight, because the other so-called flying mammals (for example, squirrels, lemurs, and sugar gliders) glide, they do not fly. Today, the diversity of bats is astonishing, with more than 1,000 species making them second only to rodents as the most diverse group of mammals. Although some bats have remarkable faces and behavior, wings are the most conspicuous features of the flying bats. Upon...

Evolution and systematics

Choloepus Didactylus

Evolved in South America, this diverse order first appears in the fossil record in the Paleocene, about 60 million years ago (mya). It has two main groups, the Pilosa and the Cin-gulata. The Pilosa contains sloths and anteaters, also known as the hairy xenarthrans, and the Cingulata includes the extinct glyptodonts and armadillos, the animals with bony carapaces. The group name Xenarthra refers to the additional articulations between the lumbar vertebrae, called xe-narthrous processes. These...

Black flying fox

Pteropus alecto Temminck, 1837, Sulawesi, Indonesia. English Pygmy fruit bat, gray fruit bat. Head and body length 19-28 cm , forearm 6-7.5 in 15-19 cm , wingspan up to 3.3 ft 1 m weight 1.1-2.2 lb 500-1,000 g . The fur on the head is black, the mantle ranges from chocolate brown to reddish brown, and white hairs frequently appear over the body, including the underside. Sulawesi, Salayer Island, Baweam and Kangean islands to the Java Sea, Lombok, Sumba and Savu islands, southern New Guinea,...

Species accounts

Ailurops ursinus Temminck, 1824 , Sulawesi, Indonesia. OTHER COMMON NAMES German Barenkuskus. A large and powerful phalanger up to 22 lb 10 kg , with long limbs and black fur often tipped with yellow. A. u. ursinus lowlands of Sulawesi, Peleng, and some adjacent smaller islands and A. u. togianus Togian Islands. Lowland and mid-elevation rainforest. BEHAVIOR Generally occurs in groups of two to four individuals. It is arboreal, living and feeding in the forest canopy, and may be active at any...

Hypsiprymnodontidae

Hypsiprymnodontidae

The one living species is a small, quadrupedally bounding animal with a sparsely haired tail, slender head, and dark chocolate-brown fur the hindfoot has four toes the third premolar is long and serrated sectorial Head and body length, 5.9-10.6 in 15-27 cm tail length 4.7-6.3 in 12-16 cm weight, 12.6-24 oz 360-680 g Musky rat-kangaroo Hypsiprymnodon moschatus . Illustration by John Megahan The Hypsiprimnodontidae are considered to be the most basic group of Macropodoidea, on account of their...