Cardiac Triggered Free Breathing 3D Balanced Fast Field Echo Projection MRA

A two-dimensional pencil-beam aortic labeling pulse was developed for the renal arteries [17]. For data acquisition during free breathing in eight healthy adults and seven consecutive patients with renal artery disease, real- time navigator technology was implemented. This technique allows high spatial resolution and high contrast renal MR angiography and visualization of renal artery stenosis without exogenous contrast agent or breath hold (see Fig. 3.31). Initial promising results warrant larger clinical studies.

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