Conclusions

The advantages offered by 3.0 T systems make MRA superior even to digital subtraction angiography, especially for studying atherosclerotic disease and vascular malformations like aneurysms, despite its lower spatial resolution. Digital angiography is increasingly being reserved for interventional and therapeutic rather than diagnostic applications (Figs. 5.14-5.18) [29].

Fig. 5.13. Normal arterial cerebral circulation: contrast-enhanced coronal view at 3.0 T

Fig. 5.14. Giant aneurysm with turbulent flow in the intraca-vernous segment of the left internal carotid artery: 3D TOF study at 3.0 T. MIP images (a-c); single partitions (d, e); digital angiography (f)

Fig. 5.14. Giant aneurysm with turbulent flow in the intraca-vernous segment of the left internal carotid artery: 3D TOF study at 3.0 T. MIP images (a-c); single partitions (d, e); digital angiography (f)

Ica Segments

Fig. 5.15. Partially thrombosed giant aneurysm of the intracavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. 3D TOF study at 3.0 T: coronal MIP image (a, detail in b); single partition (hyperintense signal inside the true lumen, mixed signal intensity of the thrombus) (c); digital angiography (d)

Fig. 5.15. Partially thrombosed giant aneurysm of the intracavernous segment of the left internal carotid artery. 3D TOF study at 3.0 T: coronal MIP image (a, detail in b); single partition (hyperintense signal inside the true lumen, mixed signal intensity of the thrombus) (c); digital angiography (d)

Temporal Arteriovenous Malformation
Fig. 5.16. Bulky right temporal arteriovenous malformation: standard MRI T2 FSE study (a), 3D TOF axial and sagittal MIP images (b, c)
Fig. 5.17. Right arteriovenous malformation: 3D PC and TOF obtained at 3.0 T. T2 FSE image (a); MIP PC image with 20 cm/s (b); with 90 cm/s (c); single 3D TOF partitions (d)
Fig. 5.18. Circumscribed thrombosis of left transverse sinus: contrast-enhanced 3D TOF 3.0 T study: MIP image (a); single contrast-enhanced partitions (b); contrast-enhanced T1 SE images (c)
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