Volvulus Pneumatosis Coli Rectal Stump Rectal Mucosa in Prolapse

• measurements: length x maximum diameter (cm).

• inspect and describe.

- volvulus - dilatation, thinning, melanosis, stercoral ulceration, ischaemia, perforation.

- pneumatosis - mucosal cobbling, blebs or gas cysts, inflammation, ulceration, perforation.

- rectal stump - mucosal granularity, ulceration, polyps, fistulae, tumour.

- rectal mucosal prolapse - mucosal granularity, thickening, induration, ulceration.

• sample (six blocks minimum) macroscopically normal and abnormal areas as indicated.

• sample mesenteric lymph nodes.

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