Urological Specimens

ADPKD adult polycystic kidney disease

AFP alpha fetoprotein - tissue/serum marker of germ cell tumour

ALL acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

AML angiomyolipoma

ARF acute renal failure

BCG intravesical attenuated tubercle Bacille-Calmette-Guerin

BNH benign nodular hyperplasia

BOO bladder outlet obstruction

BTTP British testicular tumour panel

BXO balanitis xerotica obliterans

CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

CIS carcinoma in situ

CRF chronic renal failure

CRM circumferential resection margin

DMSA dimercaptosuccinic acid - radionucleotide renal function test

DPTA diaminopropanoltetraacetic acid - radionucleotide renal test

DRE digital rectal examination

ELUS endoluminal ultrasound

EM electron microscopy

FNAC fine needle aspiration cytology

G1, G2, G3 WHO cytological grade I, II, III (transitional cell carcinoma)

haematuria blood in the urine

Hb haemoglobin

HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin - serum/tissue marker for germ cell tumour

HIFU high-intensity focussed ultrasound

HPV human papilloma virus

IF immunofluorescence

ITGCN intratubular germ cell neoplasia

IVC inferior vena cava

IVP intravenous pyelogram

IVU intravenous urogram

LDH lactate dehydrogenase

LM light microscopy

LUTS lower urinary tract symptoms

MSSU mid-stream specimen of urine

MTD malignant teratoma differentiated

MTI malignant teratoma intermediate

MTU malignant teratoma undifferentiated

NSGCT non-seminomatous germ cell tumour

NSS nephron-sparing surgery

PA(N) polyarteritis (nodosa)

PIN prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia

PLAP placental alkaline phosphatase - tissue marker of seminoma and carcinoma in situ pneumaturia gas in the urine usually from a gut fistula post BCG following therapy with intravesical attenuated tubercle (Bacille-Calmette-Guerin).


prostate specific antigen - tissue/serum marker of prostatic tumour


pass urine


pelviureteric junction


red blood cells


renal cell carcinoma


retroperitoneal lymph node dissection


transitional cell carcinoma


transrectal ultrasound of the prostate


transurethral resection bladder (tumour)


transurethral resection prostate


urinary tract infection


vesicoureteric reflux


World Health Organisation


xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

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