• open the pharynx longitudinally with scissors and identify site of tumour.

• ink the external and mucosal resection margins.

• slice into 4 mm-thick slices transversely.

• measurements:

- length and width of specimen (cm).

- maximum thickness (cm).

- dimensions (cm) of mucosal defects and other specimens.

maximum depth from reconstructed mucosal surface (cm). distances to closest mucosal and deep surgical margins (cm). mucosal abnormalities.


• tumour mucosa extent other plaque-like/ulcerated/fungating: usual type SCC.

warty: well-differentiated SC, verrucous carcinoma.

polypoid: spindle cell SCC.

white/thickened: in-situ lesions.

confined to pharynx or spread to adjacent structures.

neck dissection, oesophagectomy, thyroid gland.

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