Cholelithiasis (gall stones): the commonest aetiological agent in gall bladder pathology and classically occurring in fair, fat, fertile, females in their forties. Mixed stones are the most frequent (80%) formed from an amalgam of bile, cholesterol and calcium, and comprising biliary sludge, calculous gravel or multiple, faceted, laminated stones. Occasionally, stones can be pure such as dark bilirubinate pigment stones in a congenital haemolytic disorder, e.g., spherocytosis, or solitary, large, yellow and cholesterol rich.
Acute cholecystitis: 95% of cases are due to impaction of a stone in the cystic duct resulting in stasis, a bile-induced chemical reaction and then secondary infection. The acute inflammation often subsides with conservative medical treatment but can persist producing an empyema -perforation and bile peritonitis are unusual. In a mucocoele the wall may calcify and form a "porcelain" gall bladder.
Chronic cholecystitis: invariably associated with calculi, there are varying degrees of mucosal and transmural chronic inflammation, thickening of the muscularis, perimuscular fibrosis and adherence to the liver bed. Indicators of chronicity are mucosal pseudopyloric metaplasia and transmural mucosal herniation to form Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. These mucosal pouches can inspissate with bile and mucus becoming inflamed and forming extramural abscesses which may only partly resolve leaving a marked xanthogranulomatous histiocytic inflammatory reaction that encases the gall bladder. Prominent sinus formation at the fundus can similarly mimic a mucosal polyp or tumour; so-called cholecystitis glandularis proliferans. Unusual variants of chronic cholecysitis are follicular (reactive lymphoid aggregates), eosinophilic (often acalculous and chemical in nature) and malakoplakia. Due to the strong association with pancreatitis, fat necrosis and calcification may be seen.
Cholesterolosis: a relatively common finding of yellow mucosal flecks ("strawberry" gall bladder) due to accumulation of cholesterol-laden macrophages in the lamina propria. It is usually incidental and not associated with hypercholesterolaemia.
Oleogranulomas: the cystic duct lymph node is not infrequently enlarged and submitted along with the cholecystectomy specimen. It often contains oleogranulomas comprising fat spaces surrounded by histiocytes presumably representing a gall bladder drainage phenomenon.
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One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.