Middle Mediastinal Masses

Pericardial cysts: benign cysts, the inner surface of which are lined by a single layer of mesothe-lium and contain clear watery fluid.

Bronchial (bronchogenic) cysts: make up 60% of all mediastinal cysts and occur along the tracheobronchial tree, commonly posterior to the carina. They are usually lined by ciliated columnar epithelium but there may be focal or extensive squamous metaplasia. The wall can contain hyaline cartilage, smooth muscle, bronchial glands or nerve trunks.

Oesophageal cysts: usually in the wall of the lower half of the oesophagus. The lining may be squamous, ciliated or columnar epithelium and there is a double layer of smooth muscle in the wall. Malignant lymphoma and metastatic carcinoma: see above

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