Clinical Presentation

The retroperitoneum is rather inaccessible and because of its anatomical location tumours can grow to a large size before becoming clinically apparent. Symptoms and signs of a retroperitoneal tumour may be vague and only manifest late in the course of the disease because of obstruction/displacement of adjacent structures such as the ureter.

Figure 35.1. Retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. 1. Hypograstric (internal iliac). 2. Common iliac. 3. External iliac. 4. Lateral sacral. 5. para-aortic. 6. Inguinal. Reproduced from Hermanek P, Hutter RVP, Sobin LH, Wagner G, Wittekind Ch (eds.). TNM Atlas: illustrated guide to the TNM/pTNM classification of malignant tumours, 4th edition. Springer-Verlag: Berlin and Heidelberg, 1997.

Figure 35.1. Retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. 1. Hypograstric (internal iliac). 2. Common iliac. 3. External iliac. 4. Lateral sacral. 5. para-aortic. 6. Inguinal. Reproduced from Hermanek P, Hutter RVP, Sobin LH, Wagner G, Wittekind Ch (eds.). TNM Atlas: illustrated guide to the TNM/pTNM classification of malignant tumours, 4th edition. Springer-Verlag: Berlin and Heidelberg, 1997.

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