Clinical Investigations

Arteriography - used to localize the site and extent of vessel blockage and presence of collaterals. Doppler studies - used to determine the site of blockage and flow rates in vessels. Duplex ultrasound - used to measure pressure in small arteries. X-ray - plain X-ray of abdomen may show an aortic aneurysm if the wall is calcified. Ultrasound - used to diagnose abdominal aortic aneurysm or deep venous thrombosis. CT scan - a sensitive imaging method that allows precise measurement of size, e.g., abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) - used to diagnose aortic root dissection. Ventilation/Perfusion scan (V/Q scan) - detects pulmonary emboli. Blood tests:

• Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) - characteristically over 100 mm in the first hour in temporal arteritis.

• c-ANCA - associated with Wegener's granulomatosis and some cases of polyarteritis nodosa.

• p-ANCA - associated with polyarteritis nodosa.

0 0

Post a comment