Blocks for histology Figure 323

• all areas of different macroscopic appearances are sampled in order to identify all the histo-logical patterns present.

• one block of tumour per centimetre diameter is taken.

• sample areas demonstrating the relationship of tumour, rete and epididymis and of any area where tumour appears to invade these structures or the tunica (Figure 32.3).

• sample, where possible, adjacent non-tumourous tissue to look for vascular invasion.

• sample the surrounding normal testis to look for ITGCN and status of the normal testis (i.e., scar, inflammation, regressional changes, other tumours, calcification).

• sample a transverse section of the cut end of the spermatic cord and ideally this should be done before opening the testis to minimise the risk of contamination by tumour.

• sample the cord in one or two other areas.

• samples for special studies (e.g., electron microscopy, cytogenetics, molecular biologic studies, flow cytometry, image analysis).

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