Biopsy specimens can be obtained from the ileocaecal valve and terminal ileum by colonoscopy. They can also be obtained during laparotomy by either enteroscopy or wedge resection of a serosal lesion. In enteroscopy an incision is made in the wall of the small intestine and an endoscope is passed along the small intestinal lumen to view the region of interest. The endoscope can also be introduced orally and the surgeon can guide it through the stomach and small intestine during a laparotomy.
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