Benign Tumours

Fibroadenoma: this is the commonest benign tumour of the breast, most often encountered in premenopausal women who present with a palpable, painless and mobile discrete lump. Nonoperative diagnosis can be confidently made by the triple approach except in large lesions where excision may be advised to exclude a low-grade phyllodes tumour.

Proliferative lesions (radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion, intraduct papilloma, nipple adenoma, myoepithelioma): these lesions are due to epithelial proliferations of various complexities which can present as firm palpable masses. Mammography may show parenchymal deformity and foci of microcalcification, thus necessitating cytological assessment. The latter usually shows a highly cellular sample with some degree of nuclear atypia indicating either a core biopsy or local excision. Some of these lesions may harbour DCIS which can only be confirmed or discounted following histological examination.

Miscellaneous: rarely, benign lesions such as adenomas, hamartomas, fibromatosis or pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia are encountered.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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