Tissue Banking and the Use of Surplus Tissue for Research

The increasing use of minimally invasive techniques and the advent of screening programmes for breast and cervical carcinoma have been accompanied by a reduction in the size and amount of tumour tissue submitted and an increased range of investigative techniques. Radiotherapy and or neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been used in the treatment of oesophageal, rectal, breast and cervical carcinoma and when successful there may be very little evidence of residual tumour. Pathologists have an important...

Resection Specimens

record the number of fragments. measure the dimensions (cm) of the fragments unless there are more than three, then note dimensions of the smallest and largest, weigh the fragments (g). describe any lesions - colour, consistency and sizes. record the presence of other structures such as muscle, pericardium or fat and any involvement of these by tumour. ink margins and note the distances (cm) of any lesion from them. submit one section for each cm of tumour to include the margins. tissue may be...

Resection of Neoplastic Disease

Anal carcinoma - small lesions (< 2 cm) present at the anal verge are usually treated by local excision with a 2 cm margin of skin around the tumour. The resection should extend down to the perianal fat. For larger tumours, or extensive tumours of the anal canal that are unresponsive to radio- chemotherapy, abdominoperineal resection is the procedure of choice. A 2 cm margin of perineal skin should be excised around the tumour and there should be a radical ischiorectal resection. If there is...

Partial Penectomy

Successful local control by partial penectomy depends on division of the penis 2 cm proximal to the gross tumour extent. During the operation the skin is incised circumferentially and the cavernous bodies are divided sharply to the urethra. The dorsal vessels are then ligated and the urethra is dissected proximally and distally to attain a 1 cm redundancy. After a dorsal urethrotomy a skin-to-urethra anastomosis is performed and the redundant skin approximated dorsally to complete the closure.

Haematopoietic Specimens

Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL (eds). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th edn. Volume 1. USA McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp 348-74 Adamson JW, Longo DL. Anaemia and polycythemia. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th edn. Volume 1. USA McGraw-Hill, 2001 Handin RI. Bleeding and thrombosis. In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 15th edn. Volume 1. USA McGraw-Hill, 2001 Henry PH, Longo DL. Enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. In...

Electron Microscopy

The increasing application of immunohistochemistry and pressures to contain costs have led to a decline in the use of electron microscopy, which is usually only available in large institutions. Nonetheless, EM can still be very useful in the evaluation of renal biopsies and in the differential diagnosis of paediatric small round blue cell tumours and high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas. It can also help in the differentiation of malignant mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma and can be used on cytology...

Cytospins Liquidbased Cytology and Cell Blocks

The interpretation of non-gynecological cytology specimens, (FNA, cell effusions and respiratory specimens) may be greatly facilitated by the use of immunocytochemical staining techniques, described in more detail below. A variety of techniques have been used to prepare such specimens. A cytospin can be used to make slides from cell suspensions obtained from effusions, needle washings from FNAs or other specimens. The cells may be partially obscured by blood or proteinaceous debris and the...

Clinical Presentation

Respiratory symptoms include cough, sputum production, dyspnoea (undue respiratory effort), orthopnoea (breathlessness on lying down), wheeze due to airway obstruction, haemoptysis (coughing up blood) and chest pain. The commonest cause of haemoptysis is acute infection. Other causes include tuberculosis and pulmonary infarction. Tumour, e.g., carcinoid or bronchial carcinoma, may cause haemoptysis due either to ulceration of the expanding tumour or secondary infection caused by obstruction....

Biopsy Specimens

A number of procedures can be undertaken to obtain biopsy specimens from the colorectal mucosa Proctoscopy is used to inspect the distal rectum and anal canal. Sigmoidoscopy can be carried out by using either a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope. Rigid sigmoidoscopy is usually done without bowel preparation at the bedside or in the outpatient clinic. A hollow, rigid plastic tube measuring 25 cm in length with an attached light and air supply is inserted into the rectum up to the distal sigmoid...

Anatomy

The adult eye measures approximately 23 x 23 x 24 mm (Figure 20.1). The anterior aspect (cornea) is transparent, allowing light to enter and be focussed by the crystalline lens before being picked up by the photosensitive retina and converted into electrical impulses which are transmitted to the brain by the optic nerve. The surface of the cornea is protected by the eyelids and lubricated by the lacrimal gland, which produces tears. The tears flow over the eye keeping the surface moist and are...

Tumourlike Conditions

Postoperative necrobiotic granulomas seen following transurethral surgery with diathermy. Microscopy reveals central necrosis with peripheral palisading of histiocyes and occasional giant cells. Postoperative spindle cell nodule nodular bladder masses seen up to several months following surgery. Histology shows interlacing fascicles of mitotically active bland spindle cells resembling leiomyosarcoma. Clinical history is most important. Behaviour is benign with spontaneous resolution in many...

Special Sites

Hair hair samples should be plucked, not cut, from the patient and sent unfixed to the laboratory. The hair is mounted unfixed on glass slides and examined for hair shaft anomalies, or to look at the hair roots and count the telogen anagen ratio - this requires a minimum of 50 hairs. Scanning electron microscopy provides more information in patients with hair shaft anomalies and picks up more subtle changes than those seen at light microscopy. Nails fragments of nails may be submitted for...

Nonneoplastic Lesions Liver Cysts

Liver cysts may be congenital or acquired (e.g., neoplastic, inflammatory infective, traumatic, etc.). When surgery is to be carried out for a liver cyst an extensive preoperative clinical and radiological work-up is required to ascertain, as closely as possible, its aetiology. An initial thorough laparotomy examination is undertaken. For non-infective cysts, the cyst is opened and the contents aspirated and sent for cytological and microbiological examination. The cyst wall can then be excised...

Nonneoplastic Conditions

Epididymitis primary cause of epididymal obstruction and usually related to cystitis, prostatitis or urethritis that spreads through the vas deferens or lymphatics. It may cause testicular ischaemia and necrosis. Causes include chlamydia trachomatis, neisseria gonorrhoea, E-coli, pseudomonas, other urinary tract infection organisms and rarely tuberculosis and brucellosis. Cysts of epididymal appendix and epididymal cysts the former can twist, necrose and present with pain while the latter form...

Neoplastic Lesions

The key to successful hepatic resection of malignant disease is careful patient selection. In general A primary liver tumour may be considered for resection if it involves a single lobe and there is no invasion of the portal vein or inferior vena cava. There should be little evidence of cirrhosis in the surrounding liver. A solitary metastatic deposit (the vast majority of which will be from a primary colorectal carcinoma) localised to a single lobe may be considered for resection. There should...

Lymphovascular Supply

The internal pudendal artery gives off a branch which provides part of the blood supply to the vulva, which is also contributed to by branches from the femoral artery. The venous drainage follows the arterial blood supply. The lymphatic drainage of each side of the vulva is largely to the ipsilateral inguinal and femoral lymph nodes although some contralateral drainage occurs. Most of the lymphatic drainage is to the superficial inguinal lymph nodes and therefore these are usually the first...

Insitu Hybridisation including FISH

This technique has been regarded as a research tool but improved technologies (proprietary kits and integrated instruments for automated immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridisation) are leading to clinical applications. In-situ hybridisation may be used to detect viral nucleic acid, examples being the detection of EBV in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders or HPV subtyping in cervical biopsies. In-situ hybridisation for k and light chain mRNA may have advantages over conventional...

Histopathology report

anatomical location of lymph node groups. weight (g) of tissue. Number of nodes identified. Number of lymph nodes involved by metastatic disease. Maximum diameter of largest involved node. Presence or absence of extra-nodal spread. RPLNDs for non-seminomatous germ cell tumours post chemotherapy. presence of fibrosis, tumour necrosis or other effects of chemotherapy. presence or absence of residual viable tumour. Mature cystic teratomatous components, immature elements, malignancies of somatic...

Disorders of the Pericardium

Acute pericarditis due to infection caused by viruses or bacteria. Viruses include coxsackie B, echoviruses, influenza, mumps and Epstein-Barr virus. Bacterial pericarditis may be due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci or Haemophilus influenza. Tuberculous pericarditis usually becomes chronic. Acute pericarditis can also be secondary to acute rheumatic fever, myocardial infarction, connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid disease, uraemia, renal...

Blocks for histology

The histology should represent the tumour, its deepest extent, the relationship to the bony, mucosal and deep soft tissue margins and changes in adjacent tissues (Figures 13.3, 14.1 and 14.2). Lateral wall of maxillary sinus Upper buccal sulcus Lateral wall of maxillary sinus Upper buccal sulcus Figure 14.1. Left maxillectomy specimen for carcinoma. Suggested siting and orientation of tissue blocks for maxillectomy specimens. (a) View of palatal aspect. (b) View from lateral aspect. (c) View of...

Benign Conditions

As alluded to above, surgery for chronic peptic ulceration is now unusual. It aims to remove the gastric ulcer and the gastrin-producing G cells that drive acid secretion. This is accomplished by a Bilroth I distal gastrectomy with a gastroduodenal anastomosis (Figure 2.3). Alternatively, blockage of gastric innervation is achieved by transecting the vagus nerve trunks as they emerge through the diaphragmatic hiatus (truncal vagotomy) resulting in reduced gastric secretions and motility....

Special Techniques and Considerations

Immunofluorescence immunofluorescent examinations are required for the diagnosis of chronic blistering diseases and are useful in connective tissue diseases. The site of biopsy is important for immunofluorescence, particularly in the blistering disorders. In dermatitis herpetiformis a biopsy for immunofluorescence should be taken from clinically normal skin away from the area of blistering. In the other blistering disorders, perilesional skin is submitted. The skin should have an intact...

Neoplastic Conditions

Benign tumours these are rare, e.g., granular cell tumour. Human papilloma virus (HPV) a common aetiological agent associated with a spectrum of anal viral lesions, preneoplasia (anal intraepithelial neoplasia - AIN) and carcinoma, as well as concurrent lesions of the uterine cervix. HPV subtypes 16 18 are particularly neoplasia-progressive in this viral - AIN - carcinoma sequence. Anal margin perianal skin carcinoma commonly well-differentiated keratinising squamous carcinoma with predisposing...

Omentum and Peritoneum

The omental fat and peritoneal serosa may be involved by various inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Inflammation acute due to appendicitis or a perforated viscus (GU, diverticulitis), or granulomatous, e.g., tuberculosis, fungal peritonitis (chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)) or after previous surgery. CAPD can also be associated with the rare condition of fibrous or scle-rosing peritonitis. Infarction spontaneous, idiopathic omental infarction in the right iliac fossa mimicking...

Inflammatory Lesions

Balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis ( Zoon's balantitis) occurs in uncircumcised men with an unknown aetiology (possibly autoimmune). It consists grossly of well-defined brown red plaques, solitary or multiple, and clinically resembles erythroplasia of Queyrat. Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) this is the male equivalent of lichen sclerosus et atroph-icus of vulva. It may cause narrowing of the urethral meatus or phimosis. There is a weak association with carcinoma of the foreskin. The...

Pathological Conditions

A variety of tumours, both benign and malignant, may arise within the retroperitoneum. The commoner lesions are discussed here. Liposarcoma arising within the retroperitoneal fat, well-differentiated liposarcoma, particularly the sclerosing subtype, represents one of the commonest histological subtypes. There is a very low risk of metastasis with this type of lesion, which indeed has been described as an atypical lipoma at other sites. However, such lesions can be difficult to excise from the...

Adult Tumours

Oncocytoma represents 4 of renal tumours and usually occurs in adults over 50 as an incidental finding. It has a benign behaviour if strict diagnostic criteria are followed. Grossly it is circumscribed, brown-yellow, with a stellate central scar in larger lesions. It may be bilateral or multifocal and can invade the renal capsule. Histologically it has a sheeted or nested pattern of uniform cells with intensely eosinophilic and coarse granular cytoplasm. Patterns not allowed include papillary...

Benign Tumours

Fibroadenoma this is the commonest benign tumour of the breast, most often encountered in premenopausal women who present with a palpable, painless and mobile discrete lump. Nonoperative diagnosis can be confidently made by the triple approach except in large lesions where excision may be advised to exclude a low-grade phyllodes tumour. Proliferative lesions (radial scar complex sclerosing lesion, intraduct papilloma, nipple adenoma, myoepithelioma) these lesions are due to epithelial...

Specimen Handling

usually multiple fragments, free floating in fixative, non-orientated. place in cassette between foam insert pads or loosely wrap in moist filter paper. align in the block at the embedding stage as this facilitates microscopic assessment and fragments are not missed. separate specimens use separate cassettes and site identification labels appropriate to the request form information. cut through multiple levels. this allows better assessment of mucosal architecture and site distribution of...

Anterior Mediastinal Masses

Neurogenic tumours-neurofibroma, neurilemmoma (schwannoma),ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, malignant schwannoma, neuroblastoma, paraganglioma Unilocular thymic cysts of developmental origin and occur more often in the neck than the mediastinum. The lining may be flattened, cuboidal, columnar or (rarely) squamous epithelium with thymic tissue in the wall. Multilocular thymic cysts acquired and thought to be secondary to inflammation. Some cases are seen in HIV infection. They can mimic an...

The Core Data in Histopathology Specimens

Specimen dissection must be geared to provide information relevant to the clinician who is managing the patient. Reports must be timely, i.e., prompt, but in the context of an adequate period of fixation so that acquisition of accurate data is not compromised. The report content must not only come to an interpretationally accurate diagnosis but also be qualified by assessment of various prognostic indicators. In the field of surgical cancer pathology this is reflected by the trend towards...

Gastrointestinal Specimens

Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Klimstra DS. Tumors of the gall bladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and ampulla of vater. Atlas of tumor pathology. 3rd series. Fascicle 27. Washington AFIP, 2000 Bateman AC. How to handle and report pancreatic specimens. CPD Cellular Pathology 2001 3 94-98 Beckingham IJ (ed). ABC of liver, pancreas and gall bladder diseases. London BMJ Books, 2001 Biddlestone LR, Bailey TA, Whittles CE, Shepherd NA. The clinical and molecular pathology of Barrett's oesophagus. In...

Dissection

Cancer resections for optimal demonstration of the deepest point of tumour spread, its relationship to the CRM and correlation with ELUS CT cross sectional imaging multiple, serial, 3-4 mm thick slices of the cancer in the transverse axis are recommended. The slices can then be laid out in sequence and a photographic or digital record provided. Generally, four or five blocks of the tumour and wall are selected to adequately define the pT stage. Some pathologists leave the tumour segment...

Resections Specimens

Corpus Carcinom

The uterus is usually removed together with the cervix as part of a hysterectomy. Occasionally the cervix is left in situ and a subtotal hysterectomy is performed. Myomectomies may also be performed, especially for uterine fibroids. the specimen is weighed g . the specimen is measured in three dimensions cm , i.e., superior to inferior, medial to lateral, anterior to posterior. the specimen is orientated. The peritoneal reflection extends lower on the posterior aspect of the uterus than...

Lymphovascular Drainage

Lymph Nodes Near Ribs

The neck contains many lymph nodes subdivided into groups and located both superficially and deep within the neck. While individual nodes can be described with reference to adjacent anatomic structures it is common practice, particularly in oncology, to divide the node groupings in the neck into six levels Figure 19.2 . Parotid gland and the periparotid lymph nodes Parotid gland and the periparotid lymph nodes -Suboccipital nodes Retroauricular nodes Mastoid process Inferior belly of omohyoid...

Clinical Investigations

FBP - occasionally chronic bleeding can lead to iron deficiency anaemia. Serology - if a syphilitic ulcer is suspected. Blood glucose - in those with recurrent anorectal sepsis to rule out diabetes mellitus. Microbiology - pus from an abscess should be cultured and antibiotic sensitivities obtained. Proctoscopy - used to inspect the anus and anorectal ring. Biopsy of lesions above the dentate line can be taken without anaesthesia. Sigmoidoscopy colonoscopy - should be undertaken when an...

Surgical Pathology Specimens Laboratory Protocols

Punch Biopsy Alopecia

Punch, ellipse or shave biopsy embedded intact. Figure 37.1. Punch, ellipse or shave biopsy embedded intact. Figure 37.2. Punch, shave or ellipse bisected and embedded. Figure 37.2. Punch, shave or ellipse bisected and embedded. Diagnostic punch biopsy diagnostic punch biopsies come in a variety of sizes ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm. The smaller-sized punch biopsies are usually for diagnostic purposes. The size of the punch is recorded and a description of any lesion seen. Small...

Resection in Neoplastic Conditions

Right Colectomy

Adenomatous polyps as discussed above, the majority of adenomatous lesions can be removed by endoscopic techniques. However, large sessile polyps gt 5 cm in diameter and occupying more than one third of the colon circumference should be removed by a localised resection. Sessile adenomas in the rectum can be removed by transanal submucosal resection. In this procedure adrenaline solution is infiltrated into the submucosa around the lesion and the mucosa is incised rectal stump CIBD, diversion...

Pelvic and Retroperitoneal Specimens

ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome RPLND retroperitoneal lymph node dissection basal cell papilloma seborrhoeic keratosis dysplastic atypical melanocytic naevus pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy

Resection in Nonneoplastic Conditions

Colectomy With Hartmann Pouch

Hartmann's procedure - this is one of the most commonly used emergency operations for colorectal disease. Although this was initially devised for the elective treatment of proximal rectal tumours, it is now usually used in the emergency setting to treat conditions such as perforated diverticular disease most commonly , perforated tumour, etc. The procedure itself is defined as resection of the sigmoid colon and a variable length of proximal rectum if required with the fashioning of a terminal...

Abdominal Wall and Umbilicus

Various conditions can affect the abdominal wall and result in both FNAC and histopathology specimens. Secondary carcinoma commonly due to either gastrointestinal or gynaecological cancer involvement, can be by direct spread at presentation or because of a subsequent metastatic recurrence. The former is not infrequently seen with a perforated bowel cancer and the inner layers of the abdominal wall may be dissected off separately or in continuity with it. The latter tends to be encountered as an...

Blocks for histology Figure

sample the proximal and distal limits of resection - complete circumferential transverse sections duodenum, oesophagus or multiple circumferential blocks mid-stomach . alternatively, if separate anastomotic doughnuts are submitted - one complete circumferential transverse section of each. count and sample all lymph nodes lesser greater omenta, splenic hilum and process separately any named lymph nodes. sample a minimum of four blocks of tumour and wall to show any serosal involvement and the...