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Memory Professor System Summary


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Author: Kit Stevenson
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My Memory Professor System Review

Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Assessing Cognition Mental Status Examinations And Neuropsychological Evaluation

In the earliest stages of AD, working memory is impaired as measured by inefficient learning over time as well as poor recall after a delay. Typically, this is observable in both verbal and visual material. Executive function, the ability to plan and execute tasks, is often impaired even in mild AD. Deficits in executive function can be formally assessed with a task such as the Wisconsin Card Sort Test and can be observed in other cognitive tests such as verbal fluency and trails (Army Individual Test Battery, 1944 Benton & Hamsher, 1976 Heaton, 1981). Other cognitive domains that may be impaired early in the disease include visual spatial ability and naming. Orientation to time and place are often also impaired, which may be a result of both memory and visual spatial deficits as well as a specific deficit in orientation.

Basic processes learning and memory

Memory provides mental continuity across time by allowing information from one point in time to be used at a later point in time. That time span can be in seconds or minutes (short-term or working memory), hours, days, or longer (long-term or reference memory). It forms the basis for learning, since without memory the influence of past not yet been demonstrated. It is likely that animals have very long-duration memory capacity, especially for conceptual information. reference memory was discussed previously. Reference memory can also be divided into declarative (explicit, or conscious) and non-declarative (implicit, or unconscious) aspects. Declarative memory is further subdivided into episodic and semantic memory. Semantic memory refers to memory for information, in other words, generic knowledge. Episodic memory refers to memory for particular events or experiences and implies that the memory involves revisiting that event or experience. This aspect of episodic memory can be...

Concept empiricism Empiricism Defined

One might think that tracking objects requires the introduction of amodal symbols. We need some way of retaining constancy as our images are transformed during an episode of dynamic tracking. As a bird image transforms from standing to soaring, we need a way of marking the fact that the same bird is being represented. Amodal representations seem to fit the bill (so to speak). If we tag our dynamic bird images with amodal labels, we can keep track of the fact that those images correspond to a single object. This would spell trouble for the empiricist. But there is no need for the empiricist to go this route. To identify two different representations with the same object, one doesn't need a third representation to remain constant across them. That merely multiples representations, and it raises the question how does an amodal label get appended to sensory images The constancy problem has a much simpler solution. The most one would need is a way of indexing representations to a common...

Neurobehavioral Changes

Many of the age-related changes in cognitive capacity are also observed in diabetic subjects (Mooradian, l988b, l997a, l997b). Clinical studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes have shown moderate cognitive impairment, particularly in tasks involving verbal memory and complex information processing, whereas basic attention process, motor reaction time, and short-term memory are relatively unaffected (Mooradian et al., l988 Strachan et al., l997).

Relationship to Behavioural and Neural Functioning

Only a few studies have attempted to relate magnetization transfer measurements to measures reflecting brain function. A serial MTR study in the optic nerves of 29 patients with acute optic neuritis was performed with measurements of visual system functioning using visual evoked potentials (VEP) (Hickman et al. 2004). No significant differences in MTR were observed between patients and controls at the onset of optic neuritis, although the MTR did decrease in patients over a period of one year. There did not seem to be any direct relationship between MTR and VEP measurements. Another study of 18 patients with early-stage multiple sclerosis (Au Duong et al. 2005) demonstrated a correlation between functional connectivity between left Brodmann areas 45 46 and 24 using an fMRI working memory task, and the MTR of normal appearing white matter and also with brain T2 lesion load. Consequently, the functional connectivity relationship with MTR suggests that changes in the functional working...

Idiomatic and Conventional Expressions

Most generally, the present findings are consistent with the idea that many aspects of linguistic processing are tied to what the body is doing at any one moment. People may, for instance, be creating embodied simulations of speakers' messages that involve moment-by-moment what must it be like processes that make use of ongoing tactile-kinesthetic experiences. These simulations processes operate even when people encounter language that is abstract, or refers to actions that are physically impossible to perform. This interpretation of the evidence describe in this chapter is also congruent with a body of emerging evidence in cognitive science showing intimate connections between perceptual sensorimotor experience and language understanding (Barsalou, 1999 Glenberg & Roberston, 2000 Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002 Richardson, Spivey, Barsalou, & McRae, 2003 Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002). One possibility to consider is that embodied metaphors may not be explicitly represented as enduring...

Activities Programming

Camp et al. (2002) describe a host of activities serving as interventions for persons with dementia. Similarly, Orsulic-Jeras, Schneider, Camp, Nicholson, and Helbig (2001) describe a number of both individualized and group activities for persons with dementia that emphasize use of remaining skills such as motor learning, reading, and access to semantic memory. Most importantly, these activities have been implemented as part of the regular job routines of recreational therapists in a long-term care setting. A key element of this latter review is that such activities are based on the use of the Montessori method, developed by Maria Montessori as a means of teaching cognitive, social, and functional skills to children.

Case Study I Neurological Perspectives

In the past year since her hospitalization, she has had evidence of cognitive impairments. These often manifest as short-term memory loss but also include more difficulty in solving problems (e.g., learning to use a new microwave) and more visual-spatial difficulties (e.g., while driving, having trouble judging the distance and speed of oncoming traffic). She has had occasional visual hallucinations (e.g., seeing a small cat running under the coffee table). Mrs. Regal's cognitive symptoms fluctuate frequently. Often, she becomes very disoriented and confused in the late afternoon or may remain confused for several days before returning to a much more lucid state. Over the past year, Mrs. Regal's family has noticed that she is slowing down, Exam Bedside mental status evaluation demonstrated impaired attention, poor short-term memory, constructional apraxia, and impaired executive cognitive function as measured by Trails A and B tests. Mrs. Regal's neurological examination showed...

Study Skills For Anatomy And Physiology

Mnemonic devices An acrostic is a combination of association and imagery to aid your memory. It is often in the form of a poem, rhyme, or jingle in which the first letter of each word corresponds to the first letters of the words you need to remember. So Long Top Part, Here Comes The Thumb is an example of such a mnemonic device to remember the eight carpals in the correct sequence. Acronyms are words that are formed by the first letters of the items to remember. IPMAT is an example of this type of mnemonic device to help remember the phases of the cell cycle in the correct sequence. Try some of your own.

Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale

Blindfolded Test Subject

Administration of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale typically takes between 45 to 90 minutes, but can take as long as two hours, 30 minutes. The older the child and the more subtests administered, the longer the test generally takes to complete. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is comprised of four cognitive area scores which together determine the composite score and factor scores. These area scores include Verbal Reasoning, Abstract Visual Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Short-Term Memory. The composite K The Short-Term Memory score measures concentra tion skills, short-term memory, and sequencing skills. Subtests comprising this area score measure visual short-term memory and auditory short term memory involving both sentences and number sequences. In one subtest that measures visual short-term memory, the participant is presented with pictures of a bead design, and asked to replicate it from memory.

Dynamicity Fictivity and Scanning

The most obvious cases of dynamicity are those correlated with word order. Due to the temporality of the speech stream, we can hardly avoid accessing facets of a complex conception in the order given by the sequencing of the words that symbolize them. Dynamicity is not however limited to this dimension. It is essential that we not oversimplify the manifest complexity of language processing by assuming that a single left-to-right pass through a sentence is all there is. Instead, we can reasonably presume that sequenced processing occurs simultaneously in multiple dimensions and on different time scales. Simultaneously, for example, we have to keep track of discourse strategies, clause structure, and the conceptions evoked by individual lexical items, as well as the fine details of articulatory phonetics. In addition to following the order of presentation, we are able -by means of short-term memory - to backtrack and thus to reexamine and reanalyze material already encountered (e.g. in...

Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of DLB

Development of dementia includes problems with memory and other areas of thinking such as language skills, visuospatial abilities, complex problem solving, and so on. Impairments of working memory and visuospatial functions, visual hallucinations, and depression have been identified as early indicators of DLB. Connor (2000) compared the cognitive profiles of patients with autopsy-confirmed AD with or without LB pathology on two dementia screening measures the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and component items of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). He found that although the groups did not differ significantly in age, education, total MMSE score, or Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS) score, the AD

Auditory Scene Analysis

Many of the grouping processes are considered automatic or primitive because they can occur irrespective of a listener's expectancy and attention. Therefore, an initial stage of auditory scene analysis following basic feature extraction involves low-level processes in which fine spectral and temporal analyses of the acoustic waveform are employed so that distinct perceptual objects can be formed. However, the perception of our auditory world is not always imposed upon us. Our knowledge from previous experiences with various listening situations can influence how we process and interpret complex auditory scenes. These higher-level schema-driven processes involve the selection and comparison between current auditory stimulation and prototypical representations of sounds held in long-term memory. It is thought that both primitive and schema-driven processes are important for the formation of auditory objects, and these two types of mechanisms might interact with each other to constrain...

Tests of Cognitive Function and Brain Regions Important for Cognitive Function

2003) and involve deficits in the nigral-striatal pathways. The prefrontal cortex is involved with working memory executive function, whereas the temporal lobe-hippocampal region is involved in spatial memory (Bartus, 1978 Rapp, 1989). It is clear that consistent with a recent report (Lacreuse et al., 1995) female rhesus monkeys are faster in this task than males.

Schema Driven and Attention Dependent Processes

Current models of auditory scene analysis postulate both low-level automatic processes and higher-level controlled or schema-based processes (Alain and Arnott, 2000 Bregman, 1990) in forming an accurate representation of the incoming acoustic wave. Whereas automatic processes use basic stimulus properties such as frequency, location, and time to segregate the incoming sounds, controlled processes use previously learned criteria to group the acoustic input into meaningful sources and hence require interaction with long-term memory. Therefore, in addition to bottom-up mechanisms, it is also important to assess how aging affects top-down mechanisms of auditory scene analysis. Musical processing provides another real-world example that invokes both working memory representations of current acoustic patterns and long-term memory representations of previous auditory structures. Evidence suggests that young and older adults perform equally well in processing melodic patterns that are...

Technical Considerations

Radiofrequency (RF)-coupled devices may, at least theoretically, serve forever without additional surgical interventions. The receiver is implanted subcutaneously and connected to the electrode(s). The power source programming module is usually worn externally and communicates with the receiver through an externally applied flexible pancake-shaped antenna that is placed over the receiver. The battery change process is extremely simple, and the programming module is significantly more versatile than that of an IPG. In addition to the ability to change some or all of the stimulation parameters, some modules have integrated computer chips that memorize certain electrode configurations and stimulation paradigms and change from one to another with a simple push of a button. Most RF-coupled systems allow operations with two or more independent channels and are capable of covering 4, 8, or 16 electrode contacts. This becomes especially important in patients with complex pain patterns and in...

Segregation and Integration

Anatomical segregation entails that important correlates of specific functional brain states are found in localized changes of neuronal activity within specialized populations. However, segregated and specialized brain regions and neuronal populations must interact to generate functional dynamics. Coherent perceptual and cognitive states require the coordinated activation, i.e. the functional integration, of very large numbers of neurons within the distributed system of the cerebral cortex (Bressler, 1995 Friston, 2002). Electrophysio-logical studies have shown that perceptual or cognitive states are associated with specific and highly dynamic (short-lasting) patterns of temporal correlations (functional connectivity) between different regions of the thalamocortical system. Bressler has carried out numerous studies examining task-dependent large-scale networks of phase synchronization in primate and human cortex (Liang et al., 2000 Bressler and Kelso, 2001 Brovelli et al., 2004)....

Convergence and Divergence Across Brain Regions

Considered in this framework, neuroimaging is highly compatible with the MTMM approach, allowing the assessment of convergence and divergence across stimulation methods and the brain regions activated by those methods. However, this approach is rarely formally applied in the neuroimaging field. This in part reflects the difficulty in ascribing brain activations in a given region to a specific function. For instance, although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex frequently activates during working memory tasks, it also activates during tasks that are not specifically related to working memory (D'Esposito, Ballard, Aguirre, & Zarahn, 1998). Indeed, the multitude of functions proposed for the prefrontal cortex makes it unlikely that a single discrete process can explain all the varied tasks that lead to increased activity in the region (Duncan & Owen, 2000). Thus, it would be unwise to assume that activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (or other brain regions involved in working...

Intelligence Test Scales

The major intelligence tests used by clinicians and educators today are the Wechsler and Stanford-Binet scales. The Weschsler series involves three tests covering roughly three age groups the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV), and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale for Infants-III (WPPSI-III).** In the WAIS-III, various subtests are grouped into verbal and performance areas and, in addition, four index scores can also be derived. These index scores reflect what are called Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, and Processing

Frontotemporal Dementia

Focal and asymmetric presentations of FTD are observed, resulting in progressive nonfluent aphasia and semantic dementia (Hodges, 2001 Neary et al., 1998). In primary nonfluent aphasia, patients present with hesitant, effortful speech output that is associated with agrammatism, phonemic paraphasias, and or anomia. Other common features include stuttering, impaired repetition, and alexia. The meaning of words is preserved, as are memory and visual-spatial abilities. The language disorder is the most prominent feature of primary nonfluent aphasia and should not be associated with significant behavioral symptoms early in the course of the dementia. However, the behavioral changes observed in the frontal variant of FTD can be seen later in the disease course. In semantic dementia, speech production is effortless and without hesitancies, but the content of the words conveys little precise information. This is due to reduced use of precise terms for naming objects and increased use of...

Other Large Scale Modeling Work

Deco et al. (2004) modeled the mechanisms that underlie working memory-related activity during the execution of delay tasks that have a what -then- where design (with both object and spatial delayed responses within the same trial). They were interested in examining two notions related to the topographical and functional organization of the PFC (1) organization-by-stimulus-domain, which proposes that dorsolateral PFC is involved with spatial processing and ventrolateral PFC is specialized for object processing (e.g., Wilson et al. 1993) (2) organization-by-process, which puts forward a hierarchical organization of the PFC, with non-memory related higher order functions (e.g., manipulation of items in memory) associated with dorsolat-eral PFC regions, and short-term memory maintenance functions ascribed to ventral PFC (e.g., Petrides 1994). Deco and colleagues utilized a network composed of integrate-and-fire neurons to model both single-neuron and fMRI

Cognitive Function

In one 6-week double-blind trial in 50 postmenopausal women, 60 mg day total isoflavone equivalents significantly improved non-verbal short-term memory and performance on tests of frontal lobe function with no effects on long-term memory, category generation, or sustained attention (File et al 2005). Similarly, another double-blind controlled trial of 33 postmenopausal women found that 12 weeks'

Neuropsychiatric complications

Korsakov's syndrome, a more chronic disorder, is also believed to result from thiamine deficiency. It may be a sequel of delirium tremens or Wernicke's encephalopathy. Haemorrhage, necrosis, and gliosis are present in the mammil-lary bodies and hippocampus. A gross defect of short-term memory leads to disorientation, for which some patients attempt to compensate by confabulation. Peripheral neuropathy often co-exists.

Computer Assisted Techniques for Skeletal Determinations

Our aim was to provide a portable alternative to the reference books currently available, while avoiding the complexity of computer assisted image analysis. The wide adoption of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and pocket computer devices allowed the implementation of a low-cost portable solution that could effectively replace the traditional reference books. Technical challenges included the development of proper compression and image enhancement techniques for interpretation of hand radiographs on a small screen with adequate quality, and the need to store a large number of images on instruments with limited memory capacity.

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Endocrine Effects

Commercially available P. ginseng products have been reported to have stimulant effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in humans (34) (see Section 5). In animal models, ginseng extracts have been shown to have CNS-stimulant effects (35). Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits neuronal apoptosis in vitro (35), and ginsenoside Rb1 reverses short-term memory loss in rats (4).


Finally, the chronic low dose model consists of intravenous injections of a low dose of MPTP administration over a 5- to 13-month period (77). This model is characterized by cognitive deficits consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction reminiscent of PD or normal-aged monkeys. These animals have impaired attention and short-term memory processes and perform poorly in tasks of delayed response or delayed alternation. Since gross parkinsonian motor symptoms are essentially absent at least in early stages, this model is well adapted for studying cognitive deficits analogous to those that accompany idiopathic PD.

Bone marrow transplant

Protocol for allogeneic transplants is considerably more aggressive than autologous transplants, there is no apparent significant difference in the incidence of HHV-6 recurrence between these transplants nor sibling versus unrelated donor grafts in a pediatric population (Yoshikawa et al., 2002 Savolainen et al., 2005). HHV-6 reactivation is common in BMT transplant patients (Wang et al., 2002) and associated with skin rash and fever, the same symptoms often manifested at the time of primary infection in children. Idiotypic myelosuppression is characterized by delayed ne-utrophil and platelet engraftment and is highly associated with the reactivation of HHV-6 (Dobryski et al., 1993 Carrigan and Knox, 1994). Bethge et al. (1999) has reported two cases of BMT patients with HHV-6 PCR-positive spinal fluid who display neurological symptoms, including disorientation, sleepiness, and short-term memory loss and showed improvement following treatment with foscarnet. Appleton et al. (1995)...

Antioxidants And Aging

Perrig's group used five standard tests of memory performance. One of these was fairly obscure and had no relat ionship with blood levels of ant ioxi-dants, but the other four were more useful in testing this relationship. Implicit memory, or priming, was tested by showing subjects a picture containing several familiar objects on a computer screen,1 then showing the subjects individual pictures of 15 of these familiar objects randomly interspersed with 15 new objects. On average, subjects named familiar objects 17 faster than new ones simply because of the priming effect. Free recall was tested by asking the subjects to name as many of the object s in the initial picture as possible after a 20-minute delay. On average, subjects recalled 8.2 objects. Recognition was tested after the free-recall assignment by showing a pict ure containing some old objects from the initial picture and some of the new object s that were used in the priming phase. Subject s were asked to ident ify the...

Activation And Regulation Of Sexual Response Processing of Sexual Information

Basis of a series of priming experiments Janssen et al. (76) presented an information processing model of sexual response. Two information processing pathways are distinguished (cf. 77). The first pathway is about appraisal of sexual stimuli and response generation. This pathway is thought to depend largely on automatic or unconscious processes. The second pathway concerns attention and regulation. In this model, sexual arousal is assumed to begin with the activation of sexual meanings that are stored in explicit memory. Sexual stimuli may elicit different memory traces depending upon the subject's prior experience. This in turn activates physiological responses. It directs attention to the stimulus and ensures that attention remains focused on the sexual meaning of the stimulus. This harmonic cooperation between the automatic pathway and attentional processes eventually results in genital responses and sexual feelings. Disagreement between sexual response components would occur,...

Ginseng Memory And Intellectual Skills

More recent studies by Petkov and Mosharrof (1987) have offered a more detailed explanation of this improvement of learning, memory and physical capability induced by administration of standardised Ginseng G115 extract. Learning and relearning can be considered in terms of memory. Ginseng was considered particularly useful if the breakdown of mental activity was due either to senescence or to individual specificity. Age is a very important factor especially as one can by 75 years of age lose 25 of the memory capacity held at 20 years of age. Fortunately such loss does vary considerably from person to person. Slowing down of the cerebral processes is accompanied by a decrease in the deposition of biogenic amines and acetylcholine, the compounds essential for nerve ending transmission, and is manifested more obviously by lack of attention, decrease in concentration and lapses in memory. Memory is associated with the hippocampus, an elongated structure composed of a modified form of...

What Have We Learned So Far from Aging Place Cell Research

To quantify this place field rigidity of aged rats, pixel-by-pixel correlation comparisons were done between the firing rate maps of the two environments. Place cells with different place fields in the cylinder and square environments had correlations near 0.0 (Figure 37.1, young cells Y1 and Y2), whereas place fields that are similar between the two environments had higher correlations approaching 1.0 (aged cells A1 and the first three trials of A2). These place cell characteristics of aged rats were then related to the abilities of the same rats on the spatial water maze. As Figure 37.3 shows, the degree of the rigidity in spatial representation predicted the magnitude of the spatial memory impairment. Thus, the heterogeneity of the spatial memory capacity with aging may be due to differential information encoding capacities by the young and aged hippocampus.

Neurogenetic Syndromes

In the field of neurogenetic conditions, fragile X syndrome (FXS) is somewhat unique in that the primary genetic cause of the disease has been traced to the inactivation of a single gene. Affecting approx 1 4000-6000 live births, FXS is the most common form of inherited mental retardation resulting from a known gene (40). The physical characteristics include macroorchidism, large ears, and a long face (41). A distinct neurobehavioral phenotype, which differs between males and females, is present. Males with FXS are typically quite affected, with mild to severe mental retardation and learning disability. Deficits are present in short-term memory speech and How these anatomic changes relate to the genetic, molecular, and behavioral characteristics of FXS is still unclear. Mostofsky et al. have found significant correlations between the size of the posterior vermis and verbal (Partial regression coefficient pr2 0.150 p 0.01) and performance (pr2 0.099 p 0.05) IQ in 37 females with FXS...

Traits And Implicit Processing Tendencies

Dissociations between knowledge use and awareness of knowledge use are not confined to James (1890). Indeed, modern statements on procedural knowledge (e.g., Anderson, 1982) make the case that knowledge is often used without awareness of knowledge use. That is, people attend to, perceive, categorize, and choose behaviors without awareness of what their minds are doing. One useful contribution in this regard was provided by Jacoby and Kel-ley (1987), who suggested that it is critical to distinguish memory as an object (i.e., explicit memory) from memory as a tool (i.e., implicit memory). When memory is an object, participants are asked to recall or recognize events that they were exposed to in the past. When memory is a tool, by contrast, no memory instructions are provided. Rather, the investigator is interested in the question of whether a prior exposure to a word or object speeds subsequent recognition. The short answer is that it does even when there is no conscious awareness of...

Typical Transcriptional Activator

In yeast, genes that are transcribed recently are also marked by a specific pattern of histone methylation (Hampsey and Reinberg, 2003). This is achieved by the recruitment of the HMT Setl to the genes by the elongating RNAP (Ng et al., 2003). Interestingly, the Setl-mediated histone methylation pattern persists for some time even after the genes are no longer transcribed. Unlike the long-term memory of active genes mediated by trxG proteins in Drosophila (which can last for several generations), Setl-mediated marking of recently active genes in yeast is only short term (up to several hours). In addition, while the consequence of the trxG-mediated marking is to maintain the genes on, the yeast Setl-mediated system only marks the recently transcribed genes without actually keeping them on. Interestingly, yeast Setl is also involved in the long-term memory of gene silencing (Bryk et al., 2002 Krogan et al., 2002). Another case of activator-induced memory is noteworthy in this context....

Final Acknowledgments

I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. John Clarkin, one of the leading figures in the field, whose work I have absorbed even though it has become a part of my procedural memory and thus is not adequately cited. Dr. Clarkin graciously agreed to read this volume and write the Foreword. This is a task that no one looks forward to after a tiring day of clinical practice, research, writing, and supervision. For his generosity, I am indebted and very grateful.

Recall Biases In Selfreport Data

A major theme in the development of diary and momentary capture of self-report data is the possibility that biases contaminate recall. As it turns out, at least three fields of scientific study have contributed to our knowledge of these biases survey research, autobiographical memory research, and cognitive science. Many excellent reviews of factors exist that can influence self-reports (e.g., Bradburn, Rips, & Shevell, 1987 Gorin & Stone, 2001 Schwarz, Wanke, & Bless, 1994 Schwarz, 1999), and we describe several of the major factors below. Other research on the types of memory that are used in the recall process have provided an additional line of evidence on recall bias. Episodic knowledge has been described by cognitive scientists as representing the autobiographical experiences that are linked to specific events its form is loosely represented in memory, and it is susceptible to forgetting. Semantic memory may be considered a symbolic form of memory that is conceptual in form it...

Empirical Evidence And The Postulation Of Mental Systems

Tulving (1984) argued that memory systems should be distinguished in large part on the basis of the information they store and the operations they perform on that information. Thus, procedural memory, which governs the executions of actions and skilled performance, can be distinguished from declarative memory, which contains verbalizable knowledge. Procedural memory contains information about the rapid coordination of limb movements and thus maintains a unique information store. Declarative memory maintains information in sufficiently flexible form to allow inferential processes to act on propositions in memory and thus allows unique operations unavailable to procedural memory. These differences do indeed play out as a number of dissociations in both animals and humans (Squire, 1992). the granddaddy of all distinctions in human memory, that between episodic and semantic memory (Tulving, 1983). Episodic memory stores events from an autobiographical perspective semantic memory stores...

Agerelated Memory Impairments In The

Selective memory loss may signal a transition into dementia. For example, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a selective impairment in memory and is thought to represent early or prodromal Alzheimer's disease. In the dog, we have developed two protocols for assessing age-related changes in memory function. One involves measuring task performance as a function of increasing the amount of information to be used in working memory. The second involves increasing the amount of time that information must be held in working memory. Learning deficits can be dissociated from memory deficits in the dog, revealing that a dog may be learning impaired but its memory is excellent, or that a dog can learn quickly but have a poor memory. Spatial memory Aged humans and patients with neurodegenerative diseases are often impaired on tests of spatial memory (Freedman and Oscar-Berman, 1989). Old dogs that do not exhibit spatial learning deficits may exhibit impairments when the memory...

Executive Dysfunction In The Aging Canine

Working memory incorporates a system for temporary storage and a mechanism for on-line manipulation of stored information during a wide variety of cognitive activities (Baddeley, 2001). In this context, maintenance is defined as the transferring, maintaining, and matching of

M1 Muscarinic Receptor Activation Protects From Ab Toxicity

In AD a degeneration of presynaptic cholinergic neurons that ascend from the basal forebrain to cortical and hippocampal areas has been observed 39,40 . The Mi muscarinic receptor is expressed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and its major role is in cognitive processing including short-term memory 41,42 . In relation to AD, it is well known that M1 agonists increase the nonamyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), reducing Ap production 43-35 and also Tau phosphorylation 46,47 . Although the precise mechanism by which M1 muscarinic receptor activation may promote neuroprotection remain unclear a possibility is through inhibition of GSK-3p.

Subdividing Groups of Verbal and Performance Subtests

Computed from the Vocabulary, Comprehension and Information subtest scores the Perceptual Organization Index from the Picture Completion, Block Design and Matrix Reasoning scores the Working Memory Index from the Arithmetic, Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing scores and, the Processing Speed Index from the Digit Symbol-Coding and Symbol Search scores. Several of these indexes require the extra administration of additional supplementary subtests.

Organization Of The Volume

The set of chapters on elementary learning and memory processes begins with two focused on work with animals, the first on conditioning and learning and the second on animal memory and cognition, and concludes with one focused on work with humans, involving sensory and working memory. For the set of chapters on complex learning and memory processes, we include chapters on the specific topics of semantic memory and priming, episodic and autobiographical memory, and procedural memory and skill acquisition, with each of these chapters containing coverage of two different but related themes. The chapters on language and information processing address first psycholinguistics, with a focus on language comprehension and production, then reading, with a focus on word identification and eye movements, and finally the most complex of these processes, those involving text comprehension and discourse processing. We end with other complex processes, those that underlie thinking, again considering...

Feeding ecology and diet

The hiding of food for later consumption is a characteristic of corvids. It confers obvious benefits for species that have a sudden abundance of food and a need to eke out their supplies to cover leaner periods. Studies of spotted nutcrackers in Siberia show that these birds are completely dependent on cached pine seeds from the fall until May. Each individual hides about 100,000 seeds and needs to find about a quarter of these to survive. Research on Eurasian jays indicates that these birds memorize the position of trees and other landmark features, so that they are able to retrieve buried acorns successfully. Although gray jays of boreal forest are unable to find food buried on the forest floor during winter when the ground is covered in deep snow, they solve this problem by gluing insects and pieces of meat onto the bark of trees using their own saliva.

Cognitive and Emotional Factors

Increasingly, it has been recognised that even each of these specific cognitive abilities itself comprises complex processes. 'Memory', for example, involves the acquisition, retention and retrieval of information (Loftus, 1979). Acquisition refers to a process involving (a) the perception of the material by a sensory register, where it is retained for a very brief period, before being transferred to (b) working memory (Baddeley, 1986). The material is stored for only as long as it receives attention in the form of rehearsal or other conscious routines. It is related to current knowledge of the world imported from long-term memory before passing to (c) long-term, more permanent, memory. Retention refers to the period of time between encoding and recollection, while retrieval involves the person bringing the information from short-term or long-term memory back into awareness. Memory problems may therefore reflect one or a number of difficulties at different stages for example,...

The Relationship of Transformational Grammar to Semantics and to Human Performance

T he implications of assuming a semantic memory for what we might call generative psycholinguistics are that dichotomous judgments of semantic well-formedness versus anomaly are not essential or inherent to language performance that the transformational component of a grammar is the part most relevant to performance models that a generative grammar's role should be viewed as restricted to language production, whereas sentence understanding should be treated as a problem of extracting a cognitive representation of a text's message that until some theoretical notion of cognitive representation is incorporated into linguistic conceptions, they are unlikely to provide either powerful language-processing programs or psychologically relevant theories.

Models of Cognition and Specific Architectures

Man is describable as a dual processor, dual memory system with extensive input-output buffering within each system. The input-output system appears to have substantial peripheral computing power itself. But man is not modeled by a dual processor computer. The two processors of the brain are asymmetric. The semantic memory processor is a serial processor with a list structure memory. The image memory processor may very well be a sophisticated analog processor attached to an associative memory. When we propose models of cognition it would perhaps be advisable if we specified the relation of the model to this system architecture and its associated addressing system and data structure. (Hunt, 1973, pp. 370-371)

Michael J Spivey Daniel C Richardson and Monica Gonzalez Marquez

Rather than a physical mark, perhaps what they leave behind is a deictic pointer, or spatial index (Richardson & Spivey, 2000 Spivey, Richardson, & Fitneva, 2004). According to Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, and Rao (1997 see also Pylyshyn, 1989,2001), deictic pointers can be used in visuomotor routines to conserve the use of working memory. Instead of storing all the In the case of Spivey and Geng's (2001) eye movements during imagery, a few pointers allocated on a blank projection screen will obviously not make reference to any external visual properties, but they can still provide perceptual-motor information about the relative spatial locations of the internal content associated with the pointers. If one is initially thinking about x (e.g., the 10th floor) and then transitions to thinking about y (e.g., the 29th floor), then storing in working memory the relation above (y,x) may not be necessary if the eye movements, and their allocation of spatial indices, have embodied that spatial...

Performance Subtests Wechsler Scales

Thus, the performance subtests of the Wechsler intelligence scales sample a variety of cognitive and personality variables, including both short-term and practical, working memory, planning, abstraction, conceptualization, the need for structure, the ability to learn new material, perception of details, perceptual analysis, visual-motor coordination, identifying patterns, and sensitivity to social interactions. Because most of the performance subtests are timed, the subject's functioning in relation to speed can yield indications about a variety of diagnostic possibilities. For example, two broad diagnostic implications include depressive possibilities because of psychomotor slowness and impulsive conditions that cause a variety of errors. In addition, maintaining qualities of focus, planning and persistence in these visually oriented areas requires that subjects control anxiety, overcome confusion, tolerate frustration and limit distraction, oppositionalism, obsessionalism,...

Ultra HighYield Review

Most USMLE Step 1 candidates probably spend no more than 3 to 5 hours reviewing biostatistics. In this short time, the candidate should be able to memorize the ultra-high-yield items in this checklist. Together with a background understanding from the previous chapters in this book, these items should equip the candidate to pick up a good number of points in a subject area that is neglected by many students and medical schools, which should mean that biostatistics in itself will be relatively a high-yield subject on the examination for the candidate. After this list and the referenced material in this book have been reviewed, a self-test can be administered by using the USMLE-style exercise questions at the end of each chapter. memorize Table 4-1 to be able to choose the appropriate basic test for a given research question (page 54).

Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists

That levodopa affects only certain components of cognitive functions is consistent with the findings of Fournet et al. (127), who reported poorer performance only on working memory tasks in patients with PD after withdrawal from levodopa, and of Lange et al. (128), who also found that levodopa withdrawal impacted performance on only a minority of executive function measures. Levodopa's rather selective effects on working memory and certain executive functions may be related to its mediation of dorsolateral frontal cortex blood flow in response to executive task activation (129).

Clinical Features of PD with Dementia

There is lack of consensus concerning effects of pharmacotherapy on cognition in PD. L-dopa has been shown to result in improved performance on tasks of delayed verbal memory, choice reaction, and attention but may interfere with other tasks associated with frontal function. Cooper, Brotchie, Moser, Crossman, and Mitchell (1992) tested 82 newly diagnosed PD patients who had never been on medication with a full battery of neuropsycho-logical testing. They were then randomly assigned to L-dopa, bromocriptine (a dopamine agonist), or anticholinergic medication and tested again after four months. Anticholinergic medications impaired short-term memory, and L-dopa improved a working memory task in that study.

Language Enables the Rehearsal of Thought and Thereby Commitment to Long Term Memory

E ven a human being today (hence, a fortiori, a remote ancestor of contemporary human beings) cannot easily or ordinarily maintain uninterrupted attention on a single problem for more than a few tens of seconds. Yet we work on problems that require vastly more time. The way we do that (as we can observe by watching ourselves) requires periods of mulling to be followed by periods of recapitulation, describing to ourselves what seems to have gone on during the mulling, leading to whatever intermediate results we have reached. This has an obvious function namely, by rehearsing these interim results we commit them to memory, for the immediate contents of the stream of consciousness are very quickly lost unless rehearsed Given language, we can describe to ourselves what seemed to occur during the mulling that led to a judgment, produce a rehearsable version of the reaching-a-judgment process, and commit that to long-term memory by in fact rehearsing it. (Margolis, 1987, p. 60)

Why Study Spatial Memory and the Aging Hippocampus

Because age-associated memory impairment occurs only in specific systems of learning, it is important to focus on a kind of memory that is impaired similarly in both humans and in animals. The learning and memory of places is particularly appropriate for investigations into the mechanisms of cognitive aging for four reasons. First, diminished spatial memory capacity is associated with aging in humans and in animals (for review, see Gallagher and Rapp, 1997). Second, spatial learning and memory play significant roles in the daily functioning of both humans and other species of mammals, and memories of places are easily tested in many different species. These tests can be arranged to compare the strength of memories for well-learned places with memories for novel places, a distinction relevant to aging (for review, see Hedden, 2004). Third, the mechanisms of spatial memory appear largely conserved between animals and humans, and these have been and continue to be well-studied in young...

Rolf A Zwaan and Carol J Madden

Children do not only learn to associate constructs with objects, but also with actions and properties. For example when parents say, give me the ball, the child will associate an action - grasping a ball, extending the arm, and then releasing the ball into the grasp of a parent - with a linguistic construction (and with encouraging sounds and facial expressions on the part of the parent). In fact, the child learns something more fundamental, namely that this syntactic construction can be applied in many other contexts - for instance, throw me the ball, and even tell me a story. As such, the syntactic structure can be thought of as a linguistic construction that conveys meaning (Goldberg, 1995,2003). The meaning of this construction, the double-object construction, is that an object or something more abstract moves from the agent to a recipient. This is what the different contexts in which the expression is used have in common. Importantly, however, this is only part of the meaning of...

Specific language impairment SLI

Measures commonly used to assess language ability include the CELF-R, which consists of tests for expressive language and receptive syntactic-language abilities (the ordering of words in phrases and sentences). An additional test of non-word repetition, where subjects repeat nonsense words of increasing complexity such as ''contra-mptionist,'' has also been developed. This test is a good index of phonological short-term memory and thought to be a sensitive measure for language impairment (Bishop et al., 1999). The Test of Language Development (TLD), which assesses comprehension, expression, syntax, grammar and phonology, can also be used to measure language impairment. Alternatively, the Children's Communication checklist (CCC) allows parents and teachers to evaluate communication impairments and avoid lengthy clinical assessments of children.

Frontal Executive Function

VaD is characterized clinically by executive dysfunction, that is, the prominent loss of executive function (Cummings, 1994). This is a major component of the cognitive disability and the dementia and explains the loss of planning capacity, working memory, attention and concentration, stimuli discrimination, abstraction, conceptual flexibility, and self-control (Fuster, 2000 Royall et al., 2002). Frontal executive functions control volition, planning, programming, and monitoring of complex goal-directed activities such as cooking, dressing, shopping, and housework. Patients with executive dysfunction are often capable of performing individual steps of a complex problem but are unable to provide a correct strategy to solve it. In contrast with AD, memory loss is not an early feature of VaD and is never as profound as in AD. Tests for instrumental activities of daily living are a good surrogate of executive function control.

Sexual Feelings

Canli et al. (88) found support for the idea that emotional stimuli activate explicit memory more readily in women than in men. They asked 12 women and 12 men, during functional MRI, to rate the intensity of their emotional arousal to 96 pictures ranging from neutral to negative. After 3 weeks, they were given an unexpected memory task. It was found that women rated more pictures as highly negatively arousing than did men. The memory task revealed that women had better memory for the most intensely negative pictures. Exposure to the emotional stimuli resulted in left amygdala activation in both sexes, the central brain structure for implicit memory (77). In women only, the left amygdala and right hippocampus were activated during the most emotionally arousing stimuli that were also recognized 3 weeks later. Explicit memory is situated in the neocortex and is mediated by the hippocampus (89). These findings may suggest that in processing emotional stimuli, explicit memory is more...


HIV dementia is rarely the AIDS-defining illness, but should be considered in any individual with risk factors for HIV. Symptoms begin insidiously and progress over months. Early symptoms may mimic depression or medication effects and include apathy, poor concentration, and short-term memory difficulties. Mania and agitation can also be seen (Navia, Jordan, & Price, 1986). In contrast to depression, HIV dementia is associated with early motor abnormalities, such as unsteady gait, slowed limb eye movements, and tremor. Formal neuropsychological testing helps to objectify nonspecific cognitive and motor complaints. Deficits are observed earliest on tasks of delayed free recall, psychomotor speed (finger tapping, grooved pegboard), visuospatial skills, and frontal lobe function. Language, attention, and recognition memory are initially spared (McArthur, Sacktor, & Selnes, 1999). Over time, cognitive deficits become widespread with aphasia progressing to frank mutism. Additional...

V1v2 A1a2

Assemblies of basic units, each of which is an interacting excitatory-inhibitory leaky integrator neuronal pair that represents a simplified cortical column (Wilson & Cowan 1972). Although there are many attributes that can be used to characterize an object (e.g., shape, color, texture), we chose to focus on shape and assumed that the basic feature, based on the work of Hubel and Wiesel (Hubel & Wiesel 1977), is line orientation. So, the excitatory neurons in the V1 V2 module were constructed to respond in a retinotopically configured manner to lines oriented in particular directions (for computational simplicity, we use only horizontal and vertical lines). The V4 module is similar to the V1 V2 one in that it is retinotopically organized, and contains neurons with horizontal and vertical line orientation selectivity. It also contains neurons that respond to a combination of features (i.e., neurons that respond best to a change in line orientation, what can be called second-derivative...

Raymond W Gibbs Jr

My main argument in this chapter is that significant aspects of people's imaginative abilities arise from, and continue to be structured by, pervasive patterns of embodied activity. Imagination may refer to the scenes we construct as we read a novel, recall images of past life experiences, or experience strong emotions rising into consciousness. But human imagination is also an unconscious process that uses metaphor to map aspects of long-term memory onto immediate experience. Much of the work in support of this claim comes from the systematic analysis of linguistic statements. Some cognitive scientists argue that how people talk about their lives is not the best place to find evidence on how they truly think. After all, words often fail to describe the external world, and it is likely the case that language is inadequate to capture much about the detailed richness of inner mental experience. My claim, however, is that the language people use to describe their experiences reveals a...

Michael Feuerstein

Clinically, it is critical that we understand and address the concerns of the individual survivor presenting in our offices with persistent pain, recurrent bouts of fatigue, working memory deficits, emerging health risks or illnesses other than those related to cancer, and recurrence of tumor or metastases (Part II). These challenges need to be dealt with using evidence-based and timely approaches at a cost that is in line with patient and societal expectations (Part III). As approaches for these problems become more widely used in daily practice, access also needs to be considered. It is not enough to have these approaches available they need to be available to all who need them. We also must adequately address psychosocial factors and biology from the perspective of diversity. Not because government tells us to or because there is funding for the topic, but because it is the right thing to do and it is logical if our goal is to help all.

Autopsy Studies

Et al.'s (2001) summary of studies comparing cognitive impairments in those with LBD versus AD revealed more similarities than differences. Like AD patients, the LBD patients were impaired across all areas of cognition. Lewy body patients consistently showed more visuospatial impairments than AD patients. Studies were inconsistent as to verbal fluency and attention, some showing equivalent performances and others showing worse performance in LBD patients. Contrary to the assumption of greater frontal deficits in LBD, they performed at the same level as AD patients on category fluency, similarities, motor sequencing tasks, but worse on Trails A. Lambon Ralph et al. compared the performance of AD and Lewy body patients on a variety of semantic memory and executive functioning tests and found mostly equivalent performance. Lewy body patients performed worse on measures of visuospatial ability, and AD patients performed worse on measures of delayed recall.


Clinically evaluated, unexplained persistent or relapsing chronic fatigue that is of new or definite onset (i.e. not lifelong), is not the result of ongoing exertion, is not substantially alleviated by rest, and results in substantial reduction in previous levels of occupational, educational, social or personal activities. Together with the concurrent occurrence of four or more of the following symptoms substantial impairment in short-term memory or concentration, sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, multi-joint pain without swelling or redness, headaches of a new type, pattern, or severity, unrefreshing sleep or postexertional malaise lasting more than 24 h, the symptoms must have persisted or

Testing Adults

Because of a lack of time, perception of the test tasks as meaningless, fear of doing badly, or other factors, older adults are often more reluctant to be tested than other age groups. Laboratory-type tasks such as memorizing a set of numerical digits or nonsense syllables or solving math problems and puzzles may strike an older adult as silly and irrelevant to real life. In addition, older adults tend to be slower, more cautious, more distractible, and


The search for alternative methods of measuring general mental ability more purely has often led to the use of elementary cognitive tasks (ECTs) that measure processing speed and working memory (Jensen, 1998). These tasks highlight the hierarchical nature of intelligence and our earlier point that assessments across different levels of abstraction typically constitute related but different methods. ECTs have proved to be a popular alternative methodology for measuring general mental ability because such tasks avoid the bias that may be introduced in measurement by prior training and experience. It also is argued that basic cognitive mechanisms underlie all thinking, reasoning, and decision-making processes, and therefore such mechanisms would be substantially related to general mental ability (Kyllonen & Christal, 1990). that aggregations of ECTs form two general factors, perceptual speed and working memory (Ackerman, Beier, & Boyle, 2002). These factors are, as a result of...

Memory Storage

Table 4-1 is a glossary of memory terms. As indicated by the terms sensory memory or sensory register, the first stage of memory is a sensory impression of the material to be recalled. This stage lasts only a few seconds, until the impression is registered in short-term memory (STM or primary memory). A familiar example of primary memory, which lasts no longer than half a minute, is remembering a specific telephone number only until it has been dialed. To be remembered for a longer period of time, that is, to be Explicit memory Intentional, conscious memory. Implicit memory Memory occurring without conscious intention to remember. Long-term memory (LTM) Secondary or tertiary memory. Memory that lasts at least 10-20 minutes and involves more permanent storage in the brain. Procedural memory E. Tulving's term for stored knowledge of skilled, automatic actions or procedures. Secondary memory Fairly short-term memory having a capacity of more than 5 to 7 bits of information, based on...


Science 283, 1538-1541 Chadderdon GL, Sporns O (2006) A large-scale neurocomputational model of task-oriented behavior selection and working memory in the prefrontal cortex. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 18, 242-257 Ciocca V, Bregman AS (1987) Perceived continuity of gliding and steady-state tones brain. Neuroimage 25, 756-770 Dayan P, Abbott LF (2001) Theoretical Neuroscience. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Deco G, Rolls ET, Horwitz B (2004) 'What' and 'where' in visual working memory a computational neurodynamical perspective for integrating fMRI and singe-cell data. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16, 683-701 Desimone R, Albright TD, Gross CG, Bruce C (1984) Stimulus-selective properties Harrison RV, Harel N, Hamrahi H, Panesar J, Mori N, Mount RJ (2000) Local haemodynamic changes associated with neural activity in auditory cortex. Acta Oto-laryngol. 120, 255-258 Haxby JV, Horwitz B, Ungerleider LG, Maisog JM, Pietrini P, Grady CL (1994) The functional organization of human...

Stress Adaptation

Other studies indicate that high-dose tyrosine (1 50 mg kg) may also improve some aspects of performance and help sustain working memory when multi-tasking in stressful situations. One placebo-controlled trial involving 20 people found that administration of tyrosine significantly enhanced accuracy and working memory during the multiple task battery 1 hour after ingestion. However, tyrosine did not significantly alter performance on the arithmetic, visual, or auditory tasks during the multiple task, or modify any performance measures during the simple task battery (Thomas et al 1999).

Same Object YN

The claims made by proponents of embodied comprehension, for example about the activation of visual representations during language comprehension, may at the same time seem trivial and counterintuitive. They will seem trivial to the lay person, or even to people with great expertise in the use of language, such as novelists and poets. Of course, words can be used to conjure up images in the reader's mind However, these same claims will seem counterintuitive to researchers trained in traditional cognitive science. To them, the claim that meaning can be captured by experiential representations does not make sense. For one, the claim opens the door to the homunculus problem, and thus to an infinite regress. If there are pictures in the head, then there must be a little person in there looking at the pictures. And if so, who's in that person's mind There are two responses to this criticism. First, this problem also seems to apply to the amodal view. After all, where is the little person...

Alzheimers disease

Patients with AD first lose such mental functions as short-term memory and the ability to learn new things. In the later stages of AD they gradually lose control over their sense of orientation, their emotions, and other aspects of behavior. End-stage AD is characterized by loss of control of body functions, an increased likelihood of seizures, loss of the ability to eat or swallow, and eventual death from infection or malnutrition. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia (loss of cognitive abilities) in the elderly it is thought to be responsible for 50 -70 of cases of dementia in the United States. early-stage alzheimer's. Early-stage Alzheimer's may begin almost imperceptibly. The first symptoms usually include short-term memory loss, temporary Amnesia. Amnesia refers to memory impairment however, loss of short-term memory also means that the patient loses his or her sense of time as well. Clinical interview. In the absence of laboratory tests or imaging studies...


The autobiographies of 49 eminent psychologists were content analyzed in terms of autobiographically consequential experiences (ACEs). Most memories for ACE were not single episodes. Episodic ACEs did, however, share many characteristics of flashbulb and vivid memories elicited in studies using more traditional experimental procedures. Memories were concentrated during the college and early adult years. Thus, as in other autobiographical memory studies that have used older Ss, there was a pronounced reminiscence effect. Results are considered in light of Erikson's theory (E. Erikson et al., 1986) of adult personality development. (Reprinted with permission of the American Psychological Association, publisher of Psychological Abstracts and the PsychLIT database. All rights reserved.)


The information processing models for cognitive ability test items of Sternberg (1977), Hunt (1985), and others provided important information about what intelligence tests measure. Specifically, no one element of these componential models emerged as the fundamental process of intelligence, thus suggesting that intelligence should be viewed as a mosaic of microprocesses. For understanding and predicting job behavior, a more macro-level perspective better serves researchers. Kyllonen's (1994) consensus information processing model provides a useful framework for understanding performance on cognitive ability tests. His demonstration of the importance of working memory should influence psychometric researchers. Moreover, computerized assessment greatly facilitates measurement of time-related phenomena such as working memory and should allow measures of working memory to be routinely included in test batteries. Baddeley's (1986) research on the structure of working In conclusion, despite...

Enhanced Cognition

RCTs comparing the effects of a balanced amino acid drink with one lacking in tyrosine and phenylalanine demonstrated that tyrosine-depleted individuals experienced impaired spatial recognition memory and spatial working memory and an increase in plasma prolactin levels (Harmer et al 2001, McTavish et al 2005), indicating a decrease in dopamine neurotransmission within the hypothalamus. Although ratings of depression and other aspects of cognitive function were unaffected, subjective feedback indicated that the participants felt better on the balanced drink (Harmer et al 2001 ).

Retinoid X Receptors

Tion (Table 3.7).374,375 The RXR genes, like the RAR family, are expressed widely, in a partially overlapping but subtly distinct pattern in a number of tissues. Both RARa and RXR3 are ubiquitously expressed, while RXRa and RXRy expression is restricted to distinct organ sys-tems.21,376 Also similar to RARs, RXR single knockout animals exhibit distinct phenotypes, demonstrating that the RXRs are not functionally redundant but have evolved sufficiently following gene duplication to perform distinct cellular functions. Examples of this specialization include roles for RXR3 and -y in long-term memory and spermatogenesis, respec-tively.377,378 Some of the phenotypes observed in RXR-deficient animals are linked to its involvement in RAR signaling and retinoid metabolism. Evaluation of knockout phenotypes, therefore, must consider potential inactivation of partner function through RXR loss of function. In fact, in at least one case (PPARy), the RXRa phenotype has been nearly phenocopied by...

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